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Shadow Economies Around the World - Size, Causes, and Consequences

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  • Friedrich Schneider
  • Dominik Enste

Abstract

Using various methods (currency demand, physical input (electricity) method, model approach), which are discussed and criticized, estimates of the size of the shadow economy in 76 developing, transition and OECD-countries are presented. The average size of a shadow economy varies from 12 percent of GDP for OECD, to 23 percent for transition and to 39 percent for developing countries. An increasing burden of taxation and social security contributions combined with rising state regulatory activities are the drivin g forces for the increase of the shadow economy especially in OECD-countries. According to some findings, a growing shadow economy has a negative effect on official GDP growth, and a positive impact of corruption on the size of the shadow economy can be found.

Suggested Citation

  • Friedrich Schneider & Dominik Enste, 1999. "Shadow Economies Around the World - Size, Causes, and Consequences," CESifo Working Paper Series 196, CESifo.
  • Handle: RePEc:ces:ceswps:_196
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    Cited by:

    1. Saracoglu, Durdane Sirin, 2003. "On The Size And The Evolution Of The Informal Sector In Developing Countries: The Case Of Turkey," 2003 Annual meeting, July 27-30, Montreal, Canada 22211, American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association).
    2. Streit Manfred E., 2002. "Wirtschaftspolitik im demokratischen Wohlfahrtsstaat - Anatomie einer Krise," ORDO. Jahrbuch für die Ordnung von Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft, De Gruyter, vol. 53(1), pages 21-30, January.
    3. Wolfgang Maennig, 2004. "Korruption im internationalen Sport: ökonomische Analyse und Lösungsansätze," Vierteljahrshefte zur Wirtschaftsforschung / Quarterly Journal of Economic Research, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research, vol. 73(2), pages 263-291.
    4. Chiumya, Chiza, 2006. "Counteracting Tax Evasion In Malawi: An Analysis Of The Methods And A Quest For Improvement," MPRA Paper 9892, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    5. Trevor Breusch, 2005. "Estimating the Underground Economy using MIMIC Models," Econometrics 0507003, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 15 Dec 2005.
    6. Brunilda Muça & Galantina Doraci, 2012. "Informality effects in the economy of Albania in light of world s economic crisis," Review of Applied Socio-Economic Research, Pro Global Science Association, vol. 3(1), pages 139-143, July.
    7. Streit Manfred E., 2001. "Zum Freiheitsgehalt des marktwirtschaftlichen Systems," ORDO. Jahrbuch für die Ordnung von Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft, De Gruyter, vol. 52(1), pages 75-82, January.
    8. Chiumya, Chiza, 2007. "The Parallel Economy in Malawi: Size, Effect on Tax Revenue and Policy Options," MPRA Paper 9860, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    9. Friedrich Schneider, 2000. "The Increase of the Size of the Shadow Economy of 18 OECD Countries: Some Preliminary Explanations," CESifo Working Paper Series 306, CESifo.

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