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Increasing Shadow Economies all over the World - Fiction or Reality?

Author

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  • Enste, Dominik

    (Institut der deutschen Wirtschaft Köln (IW))

  • Schneider, Friedrich

    (University of Linz)

Abstract

Using various methods (currency demand, physical input (electricity) measure, model approach), which are discussed and criticized, estimates about the size of 67 developing, transition and OECD countries are presented. The average size of the shadow economy (in % of GDP) over 1989-93 in developing countries is 39.2%, in transition countries 23.2% and in OECD countries 14.2%. An increasing burden of taxation and social security contributions combined with rising state regulatory activities are the driving forces for the size of the shadow economy. According to some findings, a growing shadow economy has a negative impact on official GDP growth, however, a positive impact of corruption on the size of the shadow economy can be found, i.e. the bigger the corruption, the larger is the shadow economy.

Suggested Citation

  • Enste, Dominik & Schneider, Friedrich, 1998. "Increasing Shadow Economies all over the World - Fiction or Reality?," IZA Discussion Papers 26, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
  • Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp26
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Johnson, Simon & Kaufmann, Daniel & McMillan, John & Woodruff, Christopher, 2000. "Why do firms hide? Bribes and unofficial activity after communism," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 76(3), pages 495-520, June.
    2. Bruno Skrinjaric & Vedran Recher & Jelena Budak, 2017. "Consumption in the Dark: Estimating Unrecorded Expenditures of Households in Croatia," Croatian Economic Survey, The Institute of Economics, Zagreb, vol. 19(2), pages 135-167, December.
    3. Lars P. Feld & Bruno S. Frey, 2002. "Trust breeds trust: How taxpayers are treated," Economics of Governance, Springer, vol. 3(2), pages 87-99, July.
    4. Doha Abdelhamid & Alia El Mahdi, 2003. "The Small Business Informality Challenge: Lessons Learned From Country Experiences and The Road Ahead of Egypt," Working Papers 0324, Economic Research Forum, revised 08 2003.
    5. Luisanna Onnis & Patrizio Tirelli, 2010. "Challenging the popular wisdom. New estimates of the unobserved economy," Working Papers 184, University of Milano-Bicocca, Department of Economics, revised Apr 2010.
    6. Sorin Adrian Ciupitu, 2016. "Organization and Modernization of Management within the National Fiscal Administration Agency in View of Preventing and Fighting Tax Evasion," Academic Journal of Economic Studies, Faculty of Finance, Banking and Accountancy Bucharest,"Dimitrie Cantemir" Christian University Bucharest, vol. 2(2), pages 59-75, June.
    7. Rafael La Porta & Andrei Shleifer, 2008. "The Unofficial Economy and Economic Development," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 39(2 (Fall)), pages 275-363.
    8. AfDB AfDB, 2016. "North Africa - Working paper - Addressing informality in Egypt," Working Paper Series 2327, African Development Bank.
    9. Miroslava Kostova Karaboytcheva & Carolina Silva Cassorla, 2015. "The shadow economy: a relevant factor for investment decisions in selected European Union countries," Financial Theory and Practice, Institute of Public Finance, vol. 39(3), pages 305-323.
    10. Thorsten Beck & Asli Demirguc-Kunt & Ross Levine, 2005. "SMEs, Growth, and Poverty: Cross-Country Evidence," Journal of Economic Growth, Springer, vol. 10(3), pages 199-229, September.
    11. George M. Georgiou, 2007. "Measuring the Size of the Informal Economy: A Critical Review," Working Papers 2007, Central Bank of Cyprus.
    12. Suslov, N. & Mel'tenisova, E., 2015. "Analysis of Energy Price's Impact on Shadow Economies Around the World," Journal of the New Economic Association, New Economic Association, vol. 27(3), pages 12-43.
    13. Rosser, J. Jr. & Rosser, Marina V. & Ahmed, Ehsan, 2000. "Income Inequality and the Informal Economy in Transition Economies," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 28(1), pages 156-171, March.
    14. Hanan Nazier & Racha Ramadan, 2015. "Informality and Poverty: A Causality Dilemma with Application to Egypt," Advances in Management and Applied Economics, SCIENPRESS Ltd, vol. 5(4), pages 1-4.
    15. Bruno Frey & Friedrich Schneider, 2000. "Informal and underground economy," Economics working papers 2000-04, Department of Economics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Austria.
    16. Mughal, Khurrum & Schneider, Friedrich, 2018. "Shadow Economy in Pakistan: Its Size and Interaction with Official Economy," MPRA Paper 87087, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    17. Corina - Maria Ene & Andrei Ştefănescu, 2011. "Size And Implication Of Underground Economy In Romania - A Mimic Approach," Annales Universitatis Apulensis Series Oeconomica, Faculty of Sciences, "1 Decembrie 1918" University, Alba Iulia, vol. 1(13), pages 1-8.
    18. Alexandru Adriana Anamaria & Dobre Ion & Ghinararu Catalin, 2009. "Estimating The Size Of Romanian Shadow Economy Using The Currency Demand Approach," Annals of Faculty of Economics, University of Oradea, Faculty of Economics, vol. 2(1), pages 623-631, May.
    19. Silviu PRIPOAIE & Rodica PRIPOAIE, 2011. "The Tax Pressure Influence on Underground Economy Size in Romania between 2001-2010," Risk in Contemporary Economy, "Dunarea de Jos" University of Galati, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, pages 64-69.
    20. Gheorghe H. Popescu & Adriana Ana Maria Davidescu & Catalin Huidumac, 2018. "Researching the Main Causes of the Romanian Shadow Economy at the Micro and Macro Levels: Implications for Sustainable Development," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 10(10), pages 1-37, September.
    21. Miroslava Kostova Karaboytcheva & Luis Rubio Andrada, 2012. "The Impact of the Shadow Economy on the Country Risk Index," Chapters, in: Michael Pickhardt & Aloys Prinz (ed.), Tax Evasion and the Shadow Economy, chapter 7, Edward Elgar Publishing.
    22. George M. Georgiou, 2007. "Measuring the Size of the Informal Economy: A Critical Review," Working Papers 2007-1, Central Bank of Cyprus.
    23. Khurrum S. Mughal & Friedrich G. Schneider & Zafar Hayat, 2020. "Intensity of Regulations as a Cause of the Informal Sector," Journal of South Asian Development, , vol. 15(2), pages 135-154, August.
    24. Leonid KOSALS, 2005. "Industrial Defense Enterprises in the Russian Transition to a Capitalist System: Institutional Restrictions on Development," The Journal of Comparative Economic Studies (JCES), The Japanese Society for Comparative Economic Studies (JSCES), vol. 1, pages 11-23, July.
    25. Monica Ospina Londono & Fabiola Saavedra-Caballero, 2013. "Social Assistance and Informality: Examining the link in Colombia," Documentos de Trabajo de Valor Público 10933, Universidad EAFIT.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    tax evasion; corruption; shadow economy;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • O17 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Formal and Informal Sectors; Shadow Economy; Institutional Arrangements
    • O5 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economywide Country Studies
    • D78 - Microeconomics - - Analysis of Collective Decision-Making - - - Positive Analysis of Policy Formulation and Implementation
    • H2 - Public Economics - - Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue
    • H26 - Public Economics - - Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue - - - Tax Evasion and Avoidance

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