Revised estimates of the Underground Economy: Implications of US Currency held abroad
The paper reexamines the strengths and weakness of all direct and indirect methods of estimating the amount of US currency held abroad and concludes that between 25% -45% of US currency is held abroad. This result stands in sharp contrast to the widely cited estimates presented by Porter and Judson (1996) who claim that between 55% -70% of US currency is held abroad. The new estimates of currency held abroad are used to derive a domestic currency series which is then employed in a conventional currency ratio model to estimate the size and growth of the unreported economy in the US between 1973 and 1994.
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- Russell C. Krueger & Jiming Ha, 1995. "Measurement of Co-Circulation of Currencies," IMF Working Papers 95/34, International Monetary Fund.
- Gregory D. Hess & David H. Small & Flint Brayton, 1993. "Nominal income targeting with the monetary base as instrument: an evaluation of McCallum's rule," Proceedings, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
- Philip Cagan, 1958.
"The Demand for Currency Relative to Total Money Supply,"
National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number caga58-1, December.
- Philip Cagan, 1958. "The Demand for Currency Relative to Total Money Supply," NBER Chapters, in: The Demand for Currency Relative to Total Money Supply, pages 1-37 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Phillip Cagan, 1958. "The Demand for Currency Relative to the Total Money Supply," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 66, pages 303.
- Laurent, Robert D, 1974. "Currency in Circulation and the Real Value of Notes," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 6(2), pages 213-26, May.
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