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The Size of the Shadow Economies of 145 Countries all over the World: First Results over the Period 1999 to 2003

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  • Schneider, Friedrich

    () (University of Linz)

Abstract

Using the DYMIMIC approach, estimates of the shadow economy in 145 developing, transition, developed OECD countries, South Pacific islands and still communist countries are presented. The average size of the shadow economy (in percent of official GDP) over 2002/2003 in developing countries is 39.1%, in transition countries 40.1%, in OECD countries 16.3%, South Pacific islands 33.4% and 4 remaining Communist countries 21.8%. An increasing burden of taxation, high unemployment and low official GDP growth are the driving forces of the shadow economy.

Suggested Citation

  • Schneider, Friedrich, 2004. "The Size of the Shadow Economies of 145 Countries all over the World: First Results over the Period 1999 to 2003," IZA Discussion Papers 1431, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  • Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp1431
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    Cited by:

    1. Tito Boeri & Pietro Garibaldi, 2005. "Shadow Sorting," NBER Chapters,in: NBER International Seminar on Macroeconomics 2005, pages 125-163 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    2. Mathieu Lefebvre & Pierre Pestieau & Arno Riedl & Marie Claire Villeval, 2013. "Les attitudes sont-elles différentes face à la fraude fiscale et à la fraude sociale ?," Post-Print halshs-00724736, HAL.
    3. Lehmann, Hartmut & Pignatti, Norberto, 2007. "Informal Employment Relationships and Labor Market Segmentation in Transition Economies: Evidence from Ukraine," IZA Discussion Papers 3269, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    4. Mohammad Javad Razmi & Arash Jamalmanesh, 2014. "How Political Indices Affect The Shadow Economy," Romanian Economic Business Review, Romanian-American University, vol. 9(1), pages 45-55, March.
    5. Karine Torosyan & Randall K. Filer, 2014. "Tax reform in Georgia and the size of the shadow economy," The Economics of Transition, The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, vol. 22(1), pages 179-210, January.
    6. Kar, Saibal & Saha, Shrabani, 2012. "Corruption, Shadow Economy and Income Inequality: Evidence from Asia," IZA Discussion Papers 7106, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    7. Keramettin TEZCAN & İlter ÜNLÜKAPLAN, 2010. "Underground Economy and Tax Administration," Sosyoekonomi Journal, Sosyoekonomi Society, issue 2010-2.
    8. Mourmouras, Alexandros & Rangazas, Peter, 2009. "Fiscal Policy And Economic Development," Macroeconomic Dynamics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 13(04), pages 450-476, September.
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    10. Mandal, Biswajit & Marjit, Sugata & Beladi, Hamid, 2014. "Reform, Informal Sector and Extortion," MPRA Paper 58555, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    11. repec:ris:revlde:1945 is not listed on IDEAS
    12. Embaye, Abel, 2007. "Underground economy estimates for non-OECD countries using currency demand method, 1984-2005," MPRA Paper 20308, University Library of Munich, Germany.
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    More about this item

    Keywords

    government regulation; tax burden; shadow economy; DYMIMIC method;

    JEL classification:

    • O17 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Formal and Informal Sectors; Shadow Economy; Institutional Arrangements
    • O5 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economywide Country Studies
    • D78 - Microeconomics - - Analysis of Collective Decision-Making - - - Positive Analysis of Policy Formulation and Implementation
    • H2 - Public Economics - - Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue
    • H11 - Public Economics - - Structure and Scope of Government - - - Structure and Scope of Government
    • H26 - Public Economics - - Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue - - - Tax Evasion and Avoidance

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