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Illegal activities, but still values added ones (?): size, causes, and measurement of the shadow economies all over the world

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Abstract

Using various methods estimates about the size of the shadow economy in 76 developing, transition and OECD countries are presented. The average size of the shadow economy (in percent of GDP) over 1989-93 in developing countries is 39 %, in transition countries 23 % and in OECD countries 12 %. An increasing burden of taxation and social security contributions combined with rising state regulatory activities are the driving forces for the growth and size of the shadow economy. According to some findings, a growing shadow economy has a negative impact on official GDP growth, however, this result is not robust, other studies show the opposite effect.

Suggested Citation

  • Friedrich Schneider, 2000. "Illegal activities, but still values added ones (?): size, causes, and measurement of the shadow economies all over the world," Economics working papers 2000-10, Department of Economics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Austria.
  • Handle: RePEc:jku:econwp:2000_10
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Andrea Gebauer & Chang Woon Nam & Rüdiger Parsche, 2007. "Can Reform Models of Value Added Taxation Stop the VAT Evasion and Revenue Shortfalls in the EU?," Journal of Economic Policy Reform, Taylor and Francis Journals, vol. 10(1), pages 1-13.
    2. Fabrizio Borselli, 2011. "Organised VAT fraud: features, magnitude, policy perspectives," Questioni di Economia e Finanza (Occasional Papers) 106, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.
    3. Strand, Jon, 2005. "Tax distortions, household production, and black-market work," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 21(4), pages 851-871, December.
    4. Chang Woon Nam & Rüdiger Parsche & Barbara Schaden, 2001. "Measurement of Value Added Tax Evasion in Selected EU Countries on the Basis of National Accounts Data," CESifo Working Paper Series 431, CESifo Group Munich.
    5. Marija Svec, 2009. "Underground Economy in Croatia," Financial Theory and Practice, Institute of Public Finance, vol. 33(4), pages 401-429.
    6. Andrea Gebauer & Chang Woon Nam & Rüdiger Parsche, 2003. "Is the Completion of EU Single Market Hindered by VAT Evasion?," CESifo Working Paper Series 974, CESifo Group Munich.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • O17 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Formal and Informal Sectors; Shadow Economy; Institutional Arrangements
    • O5 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economywide Country Studies
    • D78 - Microeconomics - - Analysis of Collective Decision-Making - - - Positive Analysis of Policy Formulation and Implementation
    • H2 - Public Economics - - Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue
    • H26 - Public Economics - - Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue - - - Tax Evasion and Avoidance

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