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The Increase of the Size of the Shadow Economy of 18 OECD Countries: Some Preliminary Explanations

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  • Friedrich Schneider

Abstract

The latest empirical results of the size of the shadow economy in 18 OECD countries are presented, using the currency demand approach to calculate the shadow economy over time. The results indicate a strong increase in the size of the shadow economy, over the period 1960 to 1998 and for 15 of the 18 investigated OECD-countries the size of the shadow economy is more than 13% of the GNP for the year 1998. Also an analysis is given about the size of influences of major causes (direct and indirect tax burden and government regulation) on the shadow economy for Austria.

Suggested Citation

  • Friedrich Schneider, 2000. "The Increase of the Size of the Shadow Economy of 18 OECD Countries: Some Preliminary Explanations," CESifo Working Paper Series 306, CESifo Group Munich.
  • Handle: RePEc:ces:ceswps:_306
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Friedrich Schneider & Robert Klinglmair, 2004. "Shadow economies around the world: what do we know?," Economics working papers 2004-03, Department of Economics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Austria.
    2. Andrea Gebauer & Chang Woon Nam & Rüdiger Parsche, 2007. "Can Reform Models of Value Added Taxation Stop the VAT Evasion and Revenue Shortfalls in the EU?," Journal of Economic Policy Reform, Taylor and Francis Journals, vol. 10(1), pages 1-13.
    3. Garrido, Nicolás & Mittone, Luigi, 2013. "An agent based model for studying optimal tax collection policy using experimental data: The cases of Chile and Italy," Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics (formerly The Journal of Socio-Economics), Elsevier, vol. 42(C), pages 24-30.
    4. Nikopour, Hesam & Shah Habibullah, Muzafar & Schneider, Friedrich & Law, Siong Hook, 2009. "Foreign Direct Investment and Shadow Economy: A Causality Analysis Using Panel Data," MPRA Paper 14485, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    5. Stefano Micossi, 2006. "L’impresa tra dirigismo e mercato," Rivista di Politica Economica, SIPI Spa, vol. 96(4), pages 13-48, July-Augu.
    6. Friedrich Schneider, 2006. "Shadow Economies and Corruption all over the World: What do we really Know?," CESifo Working Paper Series 1806, CESifo Group Munich.
    7. Friedrich Schneider, 2000. "Illegal Activities, but Still Value Added Ones (?): Size, Causes, and Measurement of the Shadow Economies all over the World," CESifo Working Paper Series 305, CESifo Group Munich.
    8. Thomas E. Borcherding & J. Stephen Ferris & Andrea Garzoni, 2001. "Growth in the Real Size of Government since 1970," Claremont Colleges Working Papers 2001-30, Claremont Colleges.
    9. Andreas Buhn & Alexander Karmann & Friedrich Schneider, 2007. "Size and Development of the Shadow Economy and of Do-it-Yourself Activities: The Case of Germany," CREMA Working Paper Series 2007-14, Center for Research in Economics, Management and the Arts (CREMA).
    10. Busato; Francesco & Bruno Chiarini & Vincenzo di Maro, 2005. "Directional Congestion and Regime Switching in a Long Memory Model for Electricity Prices," Economics Working Papers 2005-19, Department of Economics and Business Economics, Aarhus University.
    11. Carlo V Fiorio & Francesco D'Amuri, 2005. "Workers' Tax Evasion in Italy," Giornale degli Economisti, GDE (Giornale degli Economisti e Annali di Economia), Bocconi University, vol. 64(2-3), pages 247-270, November.
    12. Ed Brown & Jon Cloke, 2007. "Shadow Europe: Alternative European Financial Geographies," Growth and Change, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 38(2), pages 304-327.
    13. Aleksandar Stulhofer & Ivan Rimac, 2002. "Opportunism, Institutions and Moral Costs: the Socio-Cultural Dimension of the Underground Economy in Croatia 1995-1999," Occasional paper series 14, Institute of Public Finance.
    14. Saurav Pathak & Emanuel Xavier-Oliveira & André O. Laplume, 2016. "Technology use and availability in entrepreneurship: informal economy as moderator of institutions in emerging economies," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 41(3), pages 506-529, June.
    15. Leandro Elia & Edoardo Di Porto, 2011. "Undeclared Work And Wage Inequality," Working Papers 201108, Università della Calabria, Dipartimento di Economia, Statistica e Finanza "Giovanni Anania" - DESF.
    16. Dan Anderberg, 2003. "Insiders, Outsiders, and the Underground Economy," CESifo Working Paper Series 1048, CESifo Group Munich.
    17. Schneider, Friedrich G. & Buehn, Andreas, 2007. "Shadow economies and corruption all over the world: revised estimates for 120 countries," Economics - The Open-Access, Open-Assessment E-Journal, Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW), vol. 1, pages 1-53.
    18. Andreas Bühn & Alexander Karmann & Friedrich Schneider, 2007. "Size and Development of the Shadow Economy and of Do-it-yourself Activities in Germany," CESifo Working Paper Series 2021, CESifo Group Munich.
    19. Andrea Gebauer & Chang Woon Nam & Rüdiger Parsche, 2003. "Is the Completion of EU Single Market Hindered by VAT Evasion?," CESifo Working Paper Series 974, CESifo Group Munich.
    20. Suslov, N. & Mel'tenisova, E., 2015. "Analysis of Energy Price's Impact on Shadow Economies Around the World," Journal of the New Economic Association, New Economic Association, vol. 27(3), pages 12-43.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • H23 - Public Economics - - Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue - - - Externalities; Redistributive Effects; Environmental Taxes and Subsidies
    • H26 - Public Economics - - Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue - - - Tax Evasion and Avoidance
    • H29 - Public Economics - - Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue - - - Other

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