IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/new/wpaper/1604.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Euro Area Imbalances: Measuring the Contribution of Expenditure Growth and Expenditure Switching

Author

Listed:
  • Enno Schröder

    () (Institute for New Economic Thinking, 300 Park Avenue South, New York, NY 10010; Department of Economics, New School for Social Research)

Abstract

The article introduces a decomposition of trade flows that allows to measure expenditure-growth effects (changes in domestic and foreign final demand) and expenditure-switching effects (changes in the allocation of demand across domestic and foreign producers). The decomposition is applied to 11 euro members 1990-2014. Most countries, including Germany, recorded unfavorable expenditure-switching effects (demand shifted from domestic to foreign producers); expenditure switching was most unfavorable in Finland, France, and Italy. There is no correlation between unit labor cost growth and expenditure switching.

Suggested Citation

  • Enno Schröder, 2016. "Euro Area Imbalances: Measuring the Contribution of Expenditure Growth and Expenditure Switching," Working Papers 1604, New School for Social Research, Department of Economics.
  • Handle: RePEc:new:wpaper:1604
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.economicpolicyresearch.org/econ/2016/NSSR_WP_042016.pdf
    File Function: First version, 2016
    Download Restriction: no

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Carlin, Wendy & Glyn, Andrew & Van Reenen, John, 2001. "Export Market Performance of OECD Countries: An Empirical Examination of the Role of Cost Competitiveness," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 111(468), pages 128-162, January.
    2. Fagerberg, Jan & Srholec, Martin & Knell, Mark, 2007. "The Competitiveness of Nations: Why Some Countries Prosper While Others Fall Behind," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 35(10), pages 1595-1620, October.
    3. Michael G. Arghyrou & Georgios Chortareas, 2008. "Current Account Imbalances and Real Exchange Rates in the Euro Area," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 16(4), pages 747-764, September.
    4. Moritz Schularick & Alan M. Taylor, 2012. "Credit Booms Gone Bust: Monetary Policy, Leverage Cycles, and Financial Crises, 1870-2008," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 102(2), pages 1029-1061, April.
    5. Fagerberg, Jan, 1994. "Technology and International Differences in Growth Rates," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 32(3), pages 1147-1175, September.
    6. Jesus Felipe & Utsav Kumar, 2014. "Unit labor costs in the eurozone: the competitiveness debate again," Review of Keynesian Economics, Edward Elgar Publishing, vol. 2(4), pages 490-507, October.
    7. Annamaria Simonazzi & Andrea Ginzburg & Gianluigi Nocella, 2013. "Economic relations between Germany and southern Europe," Cambridge Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 37(3), pages 653-675.
    8. repec:wsi:wschap:9789814749589_0001 is not listed on IDEAS
    9. Sidney S. Alexander, 1952. "Effects of a Devaluation on a Trade Balance," IMF Staff Papers, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 2(2), pages 263-278, April.
    10. Dani Rodrik, 2014. "Green industrial policy," Oxford Review of Economic Policy, Oxford University Press, vol. 30(3), pages 469-491.
    11. Dalia Marin, 2006. "A New International Division of Labor in Europe: Outsourcing and Offshoring to Eastern Europe," Journal of the European Economic Association, MIT Press, vol. 4(2-3), pages 612-622, 04-05.
    12. Anthony P. Thirlwall, 2011. "The Balance of Payments Constraint as an Explanation of International Growth Rate Differences," PSL Quarterly Review, Economia civile, vol. 64(259), pages 429-438.
    13. Hobza, Alexandr & Zeugner, Stefan, 2014. "Current accounts and financial flows in the euro area," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 48(PB), pages 291-313.
    14. Anthony P. Thirlwall, 2011. "Balance of payments constrained growth models: history and overview," PSL Quarterly Review, Economia civile, vol. 64(259), pages 307-351.
    15. Styliani Christodoulopoulou & Oļegs Tkačevs, 2016. "Measuring the effectiveness of cost and price competitiveness in external rebalancing of euro area countries: What do alternative HCIs tell us?," Empirica, Springer;Austrian Institute for Economic Research;Austrian Economic Association, vol. 43(3), pages 487-531, August.
    16. Mariarosaria Comunale & Jeroen Hessel, 2014. "Current account imbalances in the Euro area: Competitiveness or financial cycle?," DNB Working Papers 443, Netherlands Central Bank, Research Department.
    17. Thierry Tressel & Shengzu Wang & Joong S Kang & Jay C Shambaugh & Jörg Decressin & Petya Koeva Brooks, 2014. "Adjustment in Euro Area Deficit Countries; Progress, Challenges, and Policies," IMF Staff Discussion Notes 14/7, International Monetary Fund.
    18. Claudio Borio, 2014. "The financial cycle and macroeconomics: what have we learned and what are the policy implications?," Chapters,in: Financial Cycles and the Real Economy, chapter 2, pages 10-35 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    19. Jan Fagerberg & Gunnar Sollie, 1987. "The method of constant market shares analysis reconsidered," Working Papers Archives 1987001, Centre for Technology, Innovation and Culture, University of Oslo.
    20. Fagerberg, Jan, 1996. "Technology and Competitiveness," Oxford Review of Economic Policy, Oxford University Press, vol. 12(3), pages 39-51, Autumn.
    21. Morris Goldstein & Mohsin S. Khan, 2017. "Income and Price Effects in Foreign Trade," World Scientific Book Chapters,in: TRADE CURRENCIES AND FINANCE, chapter 1, pages 3-81 World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
    22. Nils Holinski & Clemens J. M. Kool & Joan Muysken, 2012. "Persistent macroeconomic imbalances in the Euro area: causes and consequences," Review, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, issue Jan, pages 1-20.
    23. Alexandr Hobza & Stefan Zeugner, 2014. "The "imbalanced balance" and its unravelling: current accounts and bilateral financial flows in the euro area," European Economy - Economic Papers 2008 - 2015 520, Directorate General Economic and Financial Affairs (DG ECFIN), European Commission.
    24. Foster-McGregor, Neil & Stehrer, Robert, 2013. "Value added content of trade: A comprehensive approach," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 120(2), pages 354-357.
    25. Karl Aiginger, 2013. "A Southern Europe strategy based on vision and industrial policy," EKONOMIAZ. Revista vasca de Economía, Gobierno Vasco / Eusko Jaurlaritza / Basque Government, vol. 82(01), pages 127-168.
    26. J. W. Mason & Arjun Jayadev, 2014. ""Fisher Dynamics" in US Household Debt, 1929-2011," American Economic Journal: Macroeconomics, American Economic Association, vol. 6(3), pages 214-234, July.
    27. Borio, Claudio, 2014. "The financial cycle and macroeconomics: What have we learnt?," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 45(C), pages 182-198.
    28. Holm-Hadulla, Fédéric & Kamath, Kishore & Lamo, Ana & Pérez, Javier J. & Schuknecht, Ludger, 2010. "Public wages in the euro area - towards securing stability and competitiveness," Occasional Paper Series 112, European Central Bank.
    29. Michele Ca' Zorzi & Michał Rubaszek, 2012. "On the Empirical Evidence of the Intertemporal Current Account Model for the Euro Area Countries," Review of Development Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 16(1), pages 95-106, February.
    30. Noeth, Bryan J. & Sengupta, Rajdeep, 2012. "Global European banks and the financial crisis," Review, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, issue Nov, pages 457-480.
    31. Thierry Tressel & Shengzu Wang, 2014. "Rebalancing in the Euro Area and Cyclicality of Current Account Adjustments," IMF Working Papers 14/130, International Monetary Fund.
    32. Engelbert Stockhammer, 2011. "Peripheral Europe's debt and German wages: the role of wage policy in the Euro area," International Journal of Public Policy, Inderscience Enterprises Ltd, vol. 7(1/2/3), pages 83-96.
    33. Jay C. Shambaugh, 2012. "The Euro's Three Crises," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 43(1 (Spring), pages 157-231.
    34. Jose L. Diaz-Sanchez & Aristomene Varoudakis, 2016. "Tracking the causes of eurozone external imbalances: new evidence and some policy implications," International Economics and Economic Policy, Springer, vol. 13(4), pages 641-668, October.
    35. Matthieu Bussière & Giovanni Callegari & Fabio Ghironi & Giulia Sestieri & Norihiko Yamano, 2013. "Estimating Trade Elasticities: Demand Composition and the Trade Collapse of 2008-2009," American Economic Journal: Macroeconomics, American Economic Association, vol. 5(3), pages 118-151, July.
    36. Kennedy, Charles & Thirlwall, A P, 1979. "The Input- Output Formulation of the Foreign Trade Multiplier," Australian Economic Papers, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 18(32), pages 173-180, June.
    37. Berg, Birgitta & Kilvits, Kaarel & Tombak, Mihkel, . "Technology Policyfor Improving Competitiveness of Estonian Industries," ETLA C, The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy, number 73, June.
    38. Hyun Song Shin, 2012. "Global Banking Glut and Loan Risk Premium," IMF Economic Review, Palgrave Macmillan;International Monetary Fund, vol. 60(2), pages 155-192, July.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Oliver Picek & Enno Schröder, 2017. "Spillover effects of Germany`s final demand on Southern Europe," IMK Working Paper 181-2017, IMK at the Hans Boeckler Foundation, Macroeconomic Policy Institute.
    2. Oliver Picek & Enno Schröder, 2017. "Euro area imbalances: How much could an expansion in the North help the South?," IMK Working Paper 180-2017, IMK at the Hans Boeckler Foundation, Macroeconomic Policy Institute.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Competitiveness; euro area; external adjustment; expenditure switching; macroeconomic imbalances;

    JEL classification:

    • F4 - International Economics - - Macroeconomic Aspects of International Trade and Finance
    • F41 - International Economics - - Macroeconomic Aspects of International Trade and Finance - - - Open Economy Macroeconomics
    • F45 - International Economics - - Macroeconomic Aspects of International Trade and Finance - - - Macroeconomic Issues of Monetary Unions

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:new:wpaper:1604. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Mark Setterfield). General contact details of provider: http://edirc.repec.org/data/denewus.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.