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The Empirical Foundations of the Arbitrage Pricing Theory I: The Empirical Tests

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  • Bruce N. Lehmann
  • David M. Modest

Abstract

This paper provides a detailed and extensive examination of the validity of the APT based on maximum likelihood factor analysis of large cross-sections of securities. Our empirical implementation of the theory proved in capable of explaining expected returns on portfolios composed of securities with different market capitalizations although it provided an adequate account of the expected returns of portfolios formed on the basis of dividend yield and own variance where risk adjustment with the CAPM employing the usual market proxies failed. In addition, it appears that the zero beta version of the APT is sharply rejected in favor of the riskless rate model and that there is little basis for discriminating among five and ten factor versions of the theory.

Suggested Citation

  • Bruce N. Lehmann & David M. Modest, 1985. "The Empirical Foundations of the Arbitrage Pricing Theory I: The Empirical Tests," NBER Working Papers 1725, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  • Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:1725
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    1. Miklós Koren & Silvana Tenreyro, 2007. "Volatility and Development," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 122(1), pages 243-287.
    2. Bruce N. Lehmann, 1986. "Residual Risk Revisited," NBER Working Papers 1908, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    3. Phylaktis, Kate & Xia, Lichuan, 2006. "Sources of firms' industry and country effects in emerging markets," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 25(3), pages 459-475, April.
    4. Mr. Marco Del Negro & Mr. Robin Brooks, 2005. "A Latent Factor Model with Global, Country, and Industry Shocks for International Stock Returns," IMF Working Papers 2005/052, International Monetary Fund.
    5. Robin Brooks & Marco Del Negro, 2006. "Firm-Level Evidence on International Stock Market Comovement," Review of Finance, European Finance Association, vol. 10(1), pages 69-98.
    6. Miklos Koren & Silvana Tenreyro, 2003. "Diversification and development," Working Papers 03-3, Federal Reserve Bank of Boston.
    7. Del Negro, Marco, 2002. "Asymmetric shocks among U.S. states," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 56(2), pages 273-297, March.
    8. Melino, Angelo, 1988. "The Term Structure of Interest Rates: Evidence and Theory," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 2(4), pages 335-366.
    9. Terry V. Grissom & David Hartzell & Crocker H. Liu, 1987. "An Approach to Industrial Real Estate Market Segmentation and Valuation Using the Arbitrage Pricing Paradigm," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 15(3), pages 199-219, September.
    10. Richard H. Pettway & Bradford D. Jordan, 1987. "Apt Vs. Capm Estimates Of The Return-Generating Function Parameters For Regulated Public Utilities," Journal of Financial Research, Southern Finance Association;Southwestern Finance Association, vol. 10(3), pages 227-238, September.
    11. Sheridan Titman & Arthur Warga, 1986. "Risk and the Performance of Real Estate Investment Trusts: A Multiple Index Approach," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 14(3), pages 414-431, September.

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