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Labor Demand During the Crisis: What Happened in Germany?

  • Bohachova, Olga


    (Institut für Angewandte Wirtschaftsforschung (IAW))

  • Boockmann, Bernhard


    (Institut für Angewandte Wirtschaftsforschung (IAW))

  • Buch, Claudia M.


    (IWH Halle)

In Germany, the employment response to the post-2007 crisis has been muted compared to other industrialized countries. Despite a large drop in output, employment has hardly changed. In this paper, we analyze the determinants of German firms' labor demand during the crisis using a firm-level panel dataset. Our analysis proceeds in two steps. First, we estimate a dynamic labor demand function for the years 2000-2009 accounting for the degree of working time flexibility and the presence of works councils. Second, on the basis of these estimates, we use the difference between predicted and actual employment as a measure of labor hoarding as the dependent variable in a cross-sectional regression for 2009. Apart from total labor hoarding, we also look at the determinants of subsidized labor hoarding through short-time work. The structural characteristics of firms using these channels of adjustment differ. Product market competition has a negative impact on total labor hoarding but a positive effect on the use of short-time work. Firm covered by collective agreements hoard less labor overall; firms without financial frictions use short-time work less intensively.

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Paper provided by Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) in its series IZA Discussion Papers with number 6074.

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Length: 35 pages
Date of creation: Oct 2011
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp6074
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  1. Martin Dietz & Michael Stops & Ulrich Walwei, 2010. "Safeguarding Jobs through Labor Hoarding in Germany," Applied Economics Quarterly (formerly: Konjunkturpolitik), Duncker & Humblot, Berlin, vol. 61(Supplemen), pages 125-166.
  2. Blundell, Richard & Bond, Stephen, 1998. "Initial conditions and moment restrictions in dynamic panel data models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 87(1), pages 115-143, August.
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  4. David Roodman, 2009. "How to do xtabond2: An introduction to difference and system GMM in Stata," Stata Journal, StataCorp LP, vol. 9(1), pages 86-136, March.
  5. Tito Boeri & Herbert Bruecker, 2011. "Short‐time work benefits revisited: some lessons from the Great Recession," Economic Policy, CEPR;CES;MSH, vol. 26(68), pages 697-765, October.
  6. Wolf Heinbach, 2007. "Wages in wage-setting regimes with opening clauses," AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv, Springer, vol. 1(3), pages 233-245, December.
  7. Muendler, Marc-Andreas & Becker, Sascha O., 2007. "The effect of FDI on job separation," Discussion Paper Series 1: Economic Studies 2007,01, Deutsche Bundesbank, Research Centre.
  8. Olivier Blanchard & Justin Wolfers, 1999. "The Role of Shocks and Institutions in the Rise of European Unemployment: The Aggregate Evidence," NBER Working Papers 7282, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  9. Michael C. Burda & Jennifer Hunt, 2011. "What Explains the German Labor Market Miracle in the Great Recession?," SFB 649 Discussion Papers SFB649DP2011-031, Sonderforschungsbereich 649, Humboldt University, Berlin, Germany.
  10. von Kalckreuth, Ulf, 2008. "Financing constraints, firm level adjustment of capital and aggregate implications," Discussion Paper Series 1: Economic Studies 2008,11, Deutsche Bundesbank, Research Centre.
  11. Oana Calavrezo & Richard Duhautois & Emmanuelle Walkowiak, 2009. "The Short-Time Compensation Program in France: An Efficient Measure against Redundancies?," Working Papers hal-00831348, HAL.
  12. Wolf Dieter Heinbach & Stefanie Schroepfer, 2007. "Typisierung der Tarifvertragslandschaft, Eine Clusteranalyse der tarifvertraglichen Oeffnungsklauseln," Journal of Economics and Statistics (Jahrbuecher fuer Nationaloekonomie und Statistik), Justus-Liebig University Giessen, Department of Statistics and Economics, vol. 227(3), pages 219-235, June.
  13. Christopher F Baum & Mark E. Schaffer & Steven Stillman, 2003. "Instrumental variables and GMM: Estimation and testing," Stata Journal, StataCorp LP, vol. 3(1), pages 1-31, March.
  14. Papke, Leslie E & Wooldridge, Jeffrey M, 1996. "Econometric Methods for Fractional Response Variables with an Application to 401(K) Plan Participation Rates," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 11(6), pages 619-32, Nov.-Dec..
  15. Horst Rottmann & Timo Wollmersh�user, 2013. "A micro data approach to the identification of credit crunches," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 45(17), pages 2423-2441, June.
  16. Boockmann, Bernhard & Steffes, Susanne, 2008. "Workers, Firms, or Institutions: What Determines Job Duration for Male Employees in Germany?," ZEW Discussion Papers 08-116, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
  17. repec:oup:restud:v:58:y:1991:i:2:p:277-97 is not listed on IDEAS
  18. Buch, Claudia M. & Lipponer, Alexander, 2010. "Volatile multinationals? Evidence from the labor demand of German firms," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 17(2), pages 345-353, April.
  19. Calavrezo, Oana & Duhautois, Richard & Walkowiak, Emmanuelle, 2010. "Short-Time Compensation and Establishment Exit: An Empirical Analysis with French Data," IZA Discussion Papers 4989, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  20. Michael Funke & Wolf Maurer & Holger Strulik, 1998. "Capital Structure and Labour Demand: Investigations Using German Micro Data," Quantitative Macroeconomics Working Papers 19801, Hamburg University, Department of Economics.
  21. Giorgio Barba Navaretti & Daniele Checchi & Alessandro Turrini, 2002. "Adjusting Labour Demand: Multinationals vs. National Firms: A Cross-European Analysis," Development Working Papers 168, Centro Studi Luca d\'Agliano, University of Milano.
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