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Labor Demand During the Crisis: What Happened in Germany?

In Germany, the employment response to the post-2007 crisis has been muted compared to other industrialized countries. Despite a large drop in output, employment has hardly changed. In this paper, we analyze the determinants of German firms’ labor demand during the crisis using a firm-level panel dataset. Our analysis proceeds in two steps. First, we estimate a dynamic labor demand function for the years 2000-2009 accounting for the degree of working time flexibility and the presence of works councils. Second, on the basis of these estimates, we use the difference between predicted and actual employment as a measure of labor hoarding as the dependent variable in a cross-sectional regression for 2009. Apart from total labor hoarding, we also look at the determinants of subsidized labor hoarding through short-time work. The structural characteristics of firms using these channels of adjustment differ. Product market competition has a negative impact on total labor hoarding but a positive effect on the use of short-time work. Firm covered by collective agreements hoard less labor overall; firms without financial frictions use short-time work less intensively.

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File URL: http://www.iaw.edu/RePEc/iaw/pdf/iaw_dp_76.pdf
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Paper provided by Institut für Angewandte Wirtschaftsforschung (IAW) in its series IAW Discussion Papers with number 76.

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Length: 33 pages
Date of creation: Oct 2011
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:iaw:iawdip:76
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  1. Richard Blundell & Steve Bond, 1995. "Initial conditions and moment restrictions in dynamic panel data models," IFS Working Papers W95/17, Institute for Fiscal Studies.
  2. Boeri, Tito & Brücker, Herbert, 2011. "Short-Time Work Benefits Revisited: Some Lessons from the Great Recession," IZA Discussion Papers 5635, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
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  6. von Kalckreuth, Ulf, 2008. "Financing constraints, firm level adjustment of capital and aggregate implications," Discussion Paper Series 1: Economic Studies 2008,11, Deutsche Bundesbank, Research Centre.
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  8. David Roodman, 2006. "How to Do xtabond2: An Introduction to "Difference" and "System" GMM in Stata," Working Papers 103, Center for Global Development.
  9. Calavrezo, Oana & Duhautois, Richard & Walkowiak, Emmanuelle, 2010. "Short-Time Compensation and Establishment Exit: An Empirical Analysis with French Data," IZA Discussion Papers 4989, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  10. Wolf Dieter Heinbach & Stefanie Schröpfer, 2007. "Typisierung der Tarifvertragslandschaft. Eine Clusteranalyse der tarifvertraglichen Öffnungsklauseln," IAW Discussion Papers 28, Institut für Angewandte Wirtschaftsforschung (IAW).
  11. Muendler, Marc-Andreas & Becker, Sascha O., 2007. "The effect of FDI on job separation," Discussion Paper Series 1: Economic Studies 2007,01, Deutsche Bundesbank, Research Centre.
  12. Arellano, Manuel & Bond, Stephen, 1991. "Some Tests of Specification for Panel Data: Monte Carlo Evidence and an Application to Employment Equations," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 58(2), pages 277-97, April.
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  14. Burda, Michael C. & Hunt, Jennifer, 2011. "What Explains the German Labor Market Miracle in the Great Recession?," IZA Discussion Papers 5800, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  15. Giorgio Barba Navaretti & Daniele Checchi & Alessandro Turrini, 2002. "Adjusting Labour Demand: Multinationals vs. National Firms: A Cross-European Analysis," Development Working Papers 168, Centro Studi Luca d\'Agliano, University of Milano.
  16. Oana Calavrezo & Richard Duhautois & Emmanuelle Walkowiak, 2009. "The Short-Time Compensation Program in France: An Efficient Measure against Redundancies?," Working Papers hal-00831348, HAL.
  17. Olivier Blanchard & Justin Wolfers, 1999. "The Role of Shocks and Institutions in the Rise of European Unemployment: The Aggregate Evidence," NBER Working Papers 7282, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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  19. Buch, Claudia M. & Lipponer, Alexander, 2010. "Volatile multinationals? Evidence from the labor demand of German firms," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 17(2), pages 345-353, April.
  20. Michael Funke & Wolf Maurer & Holger Strulik, 1998. "Capital Structure and Labour Demand: Investigations Using German Micro Data," Quantitative Macroeconomics Working Papers 19801, Hamburg University, Department of Economics.
  21. Christopher F Baum & Mark E. Schaffer & Steven Stillman, 2002. "Instrumental variables and GMM: Estimation and testing," Boston College Working Papers in Economics 545, Boston College Department of Economics, revised 14 Feb 2003.
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