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Do Employment Quotas Explain the Occupational Choices of Disadvantaged Minorities in India?

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  • Howard, Larry L.

    () (California State University, Fullerton)

  • Prakash, Nishith

    () (University of Connecticut)

Abstract

This article investigates the effects of a large-scale public sector employment quota policy for disadvantaged minorities (Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes) in India on their occupational choices, as defined by skill level, during the 1980s and 1990s. We find that, first, the employment quota policy significantly affects the occupational structure of both disadvantaged minority populations. In response to the employment quotas, individuals belonging to the Scheduled Caste group are more likely to choose high-skill occupations and less likely to choose low- and middle-skill occupations, while individuals belonging to the Scheduled Tribe group are less likely to choose high-skill occupations and more likely to choose low- and middle-skill occupations. Second, the impact of the employment quotas is significantly related with an individual's years of schooling. Overall, the results indicate that the employment quota policy changes the occupational choices of individuals within the targeted populations and contributes to their improved socio-economic standing.

Suggested Citation

  • Howard, Larry L. & Prakash, Nishith, 2011. "Do Employment Quotas Explain the Occupational Choices of Disadvantaged Minorities in India?," IZA Discussion Papers 5894, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
  • Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp5894
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    3. Zovanga L Kone & Maggie Y Liu & Aaditya Mattoo & Caglar Ozden & Siddharth Sharma, 2018. "Internal borders and migration in India," Journal of Economic Geography, Oxford University Press, vol. 18(4), pages 729-759.
    4. Gille, Véronique, 2018. "Applying for social programs in India: Roles of local politics and caste networks in affirmative action," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 46(2), pages 436-456.
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    6. Baul, Tushi, 2013. "Self-selection and peer-effects in experimental labor markets," ISU General Staff Papers 201301010800004327, Iowa State University, Department of Economics.
    7. Anjan Ray Chaudhury & Madhabendra Sinha, 2020. "Does Education Produce Identical Labour Market Outcomes for All? A Study on India," Margin: The Journal of Applied Economic Research, National Council of Applied Economic Research, vol. 14(3), pages 309-331, August.
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    More about this item

    Keywords

    caste; occupational choice; employment quota; affirmative action; skill; India;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • J62 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Mobility, Unemployment, Vacancies, and Immigrant Workers - - - Job, Occupational and Intergenerational Mobility; Promotion
    • J61 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Mobility, Unemployment, Vacancies, and Immigrant Workers - - - Geographic Labor Mobility; Immigrant Workers
    • J24 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Human Capital; Skills; Occupational Choice; Labor Productivity
    • O10 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - General
    • O2 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Development Planning and Policy

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