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The Gender Gap in Time Allocation in Europe

Author

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  • Gimenez-Nadal, J. Ignacio

    (University of Zaragoza)

  • Molina, José Alberto

    (University of Zaragoza)

Abstract

This article explores the gender gap in time allocation in Europe, offering up-to-date statistics and information on several factors that may help to explain these differences. Prior research has identified several factors affecting the time individuals devote to paid work, unpaid work, and child care, and the gender gaps in these activities, but most research refers to single countries, and general patterns are rarely explored. Cross-country evidence on gender gaps in paid work, unpaid work, and child care is offered, and explanations based on education, earnings, and household structure are presented, using data from the EUROSTAT and the Multinational Time Use Surveys. There are large cross-country differences in the gender gaps in paid work, unpaid work, and child care, which remain after controlling for socio-demographic characteristics, although the gender gap in paid work dissipates when the differential gendered relationship between socio-demographic characteristics and paid work is taken into account. This paper provides a comprehensive analysis of gender gaps in Europe, helping to focus recent debates on how to tackle inequality in Europe, and clarifying the factors that contribute to gender inequalities in the uses of time.

Suggested Citation

  • Gimenez-Nadal, J. Ignacio & Molina, José Alberto, 2020. "The Gender Gap in Time Allocation in Europe," IZA Discussion Papers 13461, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
  • Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp13461
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    3. Gutiérrez, Antonio, 2022. "La oferta laboral en Francia: una aplicación de los modelos colectivos familiares [Household labor supply in France: An empirical test of the collective model]," MPRA Paper 112173, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    4. Lozano, Javier, 2021. "Commuting y auto-empleo en Italia: diferencias por género y localización geográfica [Commuting and self employment in Italy: gender differences and geographical locations]," MPRA Paper 106279, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    5. J. Ignacio, Giménez-Nadal & Ignacio, De la Fuente, 2021. "Análisis socio-demográfico del tiempo disponible de los miembros del Ejército en España: ¿existen diferencias por género?, ¿es relevante la climatología?1 [Socio-demographic analysis of spanich arm," MPRA Paper 105318, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    6. J. Ignacio, Giménez-Nadal & Ignacio, De la Fuente, 2020. "Asalariados versus autoempleados: Diferencias en el uso del tiempo entre España y Aragón [Employed versus self-employed: Time use differences between Spain and Aragon]," MPRA Paper 105181, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    7. Jessen, Jonas & Spiess, C. Katharina & Waights, Sevrin, 2020. "Center-based care and parenting activities," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 108482, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
    8. Abenia, Aitor, 2022. "Oferta de trabajo en Italia: Un test empírico del modelo colectivo [Household labor supply in Italy: An empirical test of the collective model]," MPRA Paper 112955, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 21 May 2022.
    9. Pérez Mínguez, José Antonio, 2022. "Oferta laboral en Gran Bretaña: Un enfoque colectivo [Job supply in Great Britain: A collective approach]," MPRA Paper 112743, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    10. Bautista-Lacambra, Sergio, 2020. "El ciclo vital en la familia:una estructura conceptual dinámica [A family's life-cycle: A conceptual dynamic structure]," MPRA Paper 102514, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    11. Rainisio, Nicola & Boffi, Marco & Pola, Linda & Inghilleri, Paolo & Sergi, Ilaria & Liberatori, Maura, 2022. "The role of gender and self-efficacy in domestic energy saving behaviors: A case study in Lombardy, Italy," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 160(C).
    12. Hernández, Jaime, 2021. "Tiempo de desplazamiento al puesto laboral y relación con los empleados autónomos: el caso de las mujeres trabajadoras alemanas [Commuting time and relationship with self-employed: the case of Germ," MPRA Paper 106040, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    13. Oliete Peirona, Natalia, 2021. "Tiempos de desplazamiento hogar-trabajo en Austria [Home-work commuting times in Austria]," MPRA Paper 106819, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    14. García Rodríguez, Alejandro, 2022. "La oferta de trabajo en Bélgica: Distribución del trabajo remunerado entre los cónyuges de la familia [The job offer in Belgium: Distribution of paid work between the spouses of the family]," MPRA Paper 113262, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    15. Margalejo Hernández, Cristina, 2021. "Commuting y autoempleo en Luxemburgo [Commuting and self-employment in Luxemburgo]," MPRA Paper 106183, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    16. Jonas Jessen & Christa Katharina Spieß & Sevrin Waights, 2022. "Centre‐Based Care and Parenting Activities," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 84(6), pages 1356-1379, December.
    17. Oliva, Andres, 2021. "Estimación del tiempo de desplazamiento al trabajo para los trabajadores portugueses: diferencias entre autoempleados y asalariados [Estimation of commuting time for Portuguese workers: differences," MPRA Paper 107176, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    18. Claver, Raúl, 2021. "Determinantes del tiempo de desplazamiento al trabajo en la población femenina auto-empleada de Dinamarca [Pattern of Commuting time of female self-worked population in Denmark]," MPRA Paper 106373, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    19. España Ara, Adrián, 2022. "Oferta laboral en España: Una estimación con EU-SILC (2006-2019) [Labor supply in Spain: An estimation with EU-SILC (2006-2019)]," MPRA Paper 113018, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    20. Gimenez-Nadal, J. Ignacio & de la Fuente, Ignacio, 2021. "¿Son saludables y sostenibles los desplazamientos diarios de las personas? Evidencia empírica en Aragón y España [Are people's daily commutes healthy and sustainable? Empirical evidence in Aragon a," MPRA Paper 105454, University Library of Munich, Germany.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    European countries; gender gap; unpaid work; paid work; earnings; household structure;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • D10 - Microeconomics - - Household Behavior - - - General
    • J16 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination
    • J22 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Time Allocation and Labor Supply

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