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PlusCa Change? evidence on global trends in gender norms and stereotypes

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  • Stephanie Seguino

Abstract

Gender norms and stereotypes that perpetuate inequality are deeply embedded in social and individual consciousness and, as a result, are resistant to change. Gender stratification theories propose that women's control over material resources can increase bargaining power to leverage change in key institutions, prompting a shift to more equitable norms. By extension, policies that promote women's paid employment should serve as a fulcrum for gender equitable change. Is there any evidence to support this hypothesis? Investigating this requires a means to capture gender norms and stereotypes. The World Values Survey provides just such a mechanism because it contains a series of gender questions that span a twenty-year period and includes respondents from more than seventy countries. This paper uses that survey's data to analyze determinants of trends in norms and stereotypes over time and across countries, and finds evidence that increases in women's paid employment promotes gender equitable norms and stereotypes.

Suggested Citation

  • Stephanie Seguino, 2007. "PlusCa Change? evidence on global trends in gender norms and stereotypes," Feminist Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 13(2), pages 1-28.
  • Handle: RePEc:taf:femeco:v:13:y:2007:i:2:p:1-28
    DOI: 10.1080/13545700601184880
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Majid, H. & Siegmann, K.A., 2017. "Has growth been good for women’s employment in Pakistan?," ISS Working Papers - General Series 630, International Institute of Social Studies of Erasmus University Rotterdam (ISS), The Hague.
    2. Eileen Trzcinski & Elke Holst, 2012. "Gender Differences in Subjective Well-Being In and Out of Management Positions," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, vol. 107(3), pages 449-463, July.
    3. Fink, Janet S. & Parker, Heidi M. & Cunningham, George B. & Cuneen, Jacquelyn, 2012. "Female athlete endorsers: Determinants of effectiveness," Sport Management Review, Elsevier, vol. 15(1), pages 13-22.
    4. Trzcinski, Eileen & Holst, Elke, 2011. "A Critique and Reframing of Personality in Labour Market Theory: Locus of Control and Labour Market Outcomes," IZA Discussion Papers 6090, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    5. repec:ilo:ilowps:483478 is not listed on IDEAS
    6. Dante Contreras & Agustin Hurtado & M. Francisca Sara, 2012. "La Excepción Chilena y las Percepciones de Género en la Participación Laboral Femenina," Working Papers wp374, University of Chile, Department of Economics.
    7. Uchenna Efobi & Belmondo Tanankem & Simplice Asongu, 2016. "Technological Advancement and the Evolving Gender Identities: A Focus on the Level of Female Economic Participation in Sub-Saharan Africa," Working Papers 16/045, African Governance and Development Institute..
    8. Pau Baizan & Bruno Arpino & Carlos Eric Delclòs, 2016. "The Effect of Gender Policies on Fertility: The Moderating Role of Education and Normative Context," European Journal of Population, Springer;European Association for Population Studies, vol. 32(1), pages 1-30, February.
    9. Marina Della Giusta & Nigar Hashimzade & Sarah Jewell, 2011. "Why Care? Social Norms, Relative Income and the Supply of Unpaid Care," Economics & Management Discussion Papers em-dp2011-03, Henley Business School, Reading University.
    10. Fischer, Justina AV & Aydıner-Avşar, Nursel, 2015. "Are women in the MENA region really that different from women in Europe? Globalization, conservative values and female labor market participation," MPRA Paper 63800, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    11. repec:dem:demres:v:38:y:2018:i:35 is not listed on IDEAS
    12. Seguino, Stephanie, 2011. "Help or Hindrance? Religion's Impact on Gender Inequality in Attitudes and Outcomes," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 39(8), pages 1308-1321, August.
    13. Charles Kenny, Dev Patel, 2017. "Gender Laws, Values, and Outcomes: Evidence from the World Values Survey - Working Paper 452," Working Papers 452, Center for Global Development.
    14. Kelkar, Govind., 2013. "At the threshold of economic empowerment : women, work and gender regimes in Asia," ILO Working Papers 994834783402676, International Labour Organization.
    15. Madalozzo, Regina & Martins, Sergio R. & Shiratori, Ludmila, 2008. "Participação no Mercado de Trabalho e no Trabalho Doméstico: Homens e Mulheres têm Condições Iguais?," Insper Working Papers wpe_118, Insper Working Paper, Insper Instituto de Ensino e Pesquisa.
    16. Eileen Trzcinski & Elke Holst, 2011. "Why Men Might "Have It All" While Women Still Have to Choose between Career and Family in Germany," SOEPpapers on Multidisciplinary Panel Data Research 356, DIW Berlin, The German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP).
    17. Neetu A. John & Kirsten Stoebenau & Samantha Ritter & Jeffrey Edmeades & Nikola Balvin & UNICEF Office of Research - Innocenti, 2017. "Gender Socialization during Adolescence in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: Conceptualization, influences and outcomes," Papers indipa885, Innocenti Discussion Papers.
    18. Pastore, Francesco & Tenaglia, Simona, 2013. "Ora et non Labora? A Test of the Impact of Religion on Female Labor Supply," IZA Discussion Papers 7356, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    19. Bettina Casad & Amy Marcus-Newhall & Brandon Nakawaki & Alian Kasabian & Judith LeMaster, 2012. "Younger Age at First Childbirth Predicts Mothers’ Lower Economic and Psychological Well-Being Later in Life," Journal of Family and Economic Issues, Springer, vol. 33(4), pages 421-435, December.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Economic growth; employment; gender ideology; gender norms and stereotypes; gender roles; globalization; JEL Codes: A14; J16; J21;

    JEL classification:

    • A14 - General Economics and Teaching - - General Economics - - - Sociology of Economics
    • J16 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination
    • J21 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Labor Force and Employment, Size, and Structure

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