IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/eth/wpswif/16-257.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

The Impact of Emissions-Based Taxes on the Retirement of Used and Inefficient Vehicles: The Case of Switzerland

Author

Listed:

Abstract

Many countries have adopted policies designed to reduce CO2 emissions from road vehicles. Taxes linked to the CO2 emissions rate or the fuel economy of a vehicle (which is inversely related to its CO2 emissions rate) are examples of such policies. These taxes are usually imposed on new vehicles, and previous evaluations have estimated the increases in the shares or sales of new and fuel-efficient vehicles associated with such taxes. In contrast, we ask whether taxes on new cars that penalize high emitters induce changes in the retirement of used and inefficient vehicles. We exploit natural experiment conditions in Switzerland to analyze the impact of two different “bonus”/“malus” schemes implemented at the cantonal level. In both schemes, the bonus rewards new efficient vehicles. The malus is retroactive in canton Obwalden, in the sense that it is charged on both new and existing high-emitting cars, but it is only applied prospectively to new cars in Geneva. We use a difference-in-difference design within a survival analysis setting. We find that a bonus/malus accelerates the retirement of existing high-emitting vehicles in Obwalden, shortening the expected lifetime of the three most popular make-models by 7 to 11 months. The effect is the opposite in Geneva, where we estimate that the expected lifetime of these three popular models is extended by 5 to 8 months. These findings have important implications about the desirability of bonus/malus schemes and on their design, as well as on old car scrappage programs.

Suggested Citation

  • Anna Alberini & Markus Bareit & Adan Martinez-Cruz & Massimo Filippini, 2016. "The Impact of Emissions-Based Taxes on the Retirement of Used and Inefficient Vehicles: The Case of Switzerland," CER-ETH Economics working paper series 16/257, CER-ETH - Center of Economic Research (CER-ETH) at ETH Zurich.
  • Handle: RePEc:eth:wpswif:16-257
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.cer.ethz.ch/content/dam/ethz/special-interest/mtec/cer-eth/cer-eth-dam/documents/working-papers/WP-16-257.pdf
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Hilton, Denis & Charalambides, Laetitia & Demarque, Christophe & Waroquier, Laurent & Raux, Charles, 2014. "A tax can nudge: The impact of an environmentally motivated bonus/malus fiscal system on transport preferences," Journal of Economic Psychology, Elsevier, vol. 42(C), pages 17-27.
    2. Card, David & Krueger, Alan B, 1994. "Minimum Wages and Employment: A Case Study of the Fast-Food Industry in New Jersey and Pennsylvania," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 84(4), pages 772-793, September.
    3. Nicholas Rivers & Brandon Schaufele, 2017. "New vehicle feebates," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 50(1), pages 201-232, February.
    4. Meghan R. Busse & Christopher R. Knittel & Florian Zettelmeyer, 2013. "Are Consumers Myopic? Evidence from New and Used Car Purchases," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 103(1), pages 220-256, February.
    5. Cristian Huse & Claudio Lucinda, 2014. "The Market Impact and the Cost of Environmental Policy: Evidence from the Swedish Green Car Rebate," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 124(578), pages 393-419, August.
    6. Ciccone, Alice, 2014. "Is it all about CO2 emissions? The environmental effects of a tax reform for new vehicles in Norway," Memorandum 19/2014, Oslo University, Department of Economics.
    7. Antonio M. Bento & Lawrence H. Goulder & Mark R. Jacobsen & Roger H. von Haefen, 2009. "Distributional and Efficiency Impacts of Increased US Gasoline Taxes," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 99(3), pages 667-699, June.
    8. James M. Sallee, 2014. "Rational Inattention and Energy Efficiency," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 57(3), pages 781-820.
    9. Goulder, Lawrence H. & Jacobsen, Mark R. & van Benthem, Arthur A., 2012. "Unintended consequences from nested state and federal regulations: The case of the Pavley greenhouse-gas-per-mile limits," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 63(2), pages 187-207.
    10. Anna Alberini & Winston Harrington & Virginia McConnell, 1995. "Determinants of Participation in Accelerated Vehicle-Retirement Programs," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 26(1), pages 93-112, Spring.
    11. Anna, Petrenko, 2016. "Мaркування готової продукції як складова частина інформаційного забезпечення маркетингової діяльності підприємств овочепродуктового підкомплексу," Agricultural and Resource Economics: International Scientific E-Journal, Agricultural and Resource Economics: International Scientific E-Journal, vol. 2(1), March.
    12. Soren T. Anderson & Ian W. H. Parry & James M. Sallee & Carolyn Fischer, 2011. "Automobile Fuel Economy Standards: Impacts, Efficiency, and Alternatives," Review of Environmental Economics and Policy, Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 5(1), pages 89-108, Winter.
    13. Shanjun Li & Christopher Timmins & Roger H. von Haefen, 2009. "How Do Gasoline Prices Affect Fleet Fuel Economy?," American Economic Journal: Economic Policy, American Economic Association, vol. 1(2), pages 113-137, August.
    14. Alberini, Anna & Harrington, Winston & McConnell, Virginia, 1996. "Estimating an Emissions Supply Function from Accelerated Vehicle Retirement Programs," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 78(2), pages 251-265, May.
    15. Puhani, Patrick A., 2012. "The treatment effect, the cross difference, and the interaction term in nonlinear “difference-in-differences” models," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 115(1), pages 85-87.
    16. Anna Alberini & Markus Bareit, 2016. "The Effect of Registration Taxes on New Car Sales and Emissions: Evidence from Switzerland," CER-ETH Economics working paper series 16/245, CER-ETH - Center of Economic Research (CER-ETH) at ETH Zurich.
    17. Antweiler, Werner & Gulati, Sumeet, 2015. "Scrapping for clean air: Emissions savings from the BC SCRAP-IT program," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 71(C), pages 198-214.
    18. Cantos-Sánchez, Pedro & Gutiérrez-i-Puigarnau, Eva & Mulalic, Ismir, 2018. "The impact of scrappage programmes on the demand for new vehicles: Evidence from Spain," Research in Transportation Economics, Elsevier, vol. 70(C), pages 83-96.
    19. Sabreena Anowar & Naveen Eluru & Luis F. Miranda-Moreno, 2014. "Alternative Modeling Approaches Used for Examining Automobile Ownership: A Comprehensive Review," Transport Reviews, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 34(4), pages 441-473, July.
    20. M. Angelucci & V. Di Maro, 2016. "Programme evaluation and spillover effects," Journal of Development Effectiveness, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 8(1), pages 22-43, March.
    21. Xavier D'Haultfœuille & Pauline Givord & Xavier Boutin, 2014. "The Environmental Effect of Green Taxation: The Case of the French Bonus/Malus," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 124(578), pages 444-480, August.
    22. Lechner, Michael, 2011. "The Estimation of Causal Effects by Difference-in-Difference Methods," Foundations and Trends(R) in Econometrics, now publishers, vol. 4(3), pages 165-224, November.
    23. Shahidur R. Khandker & Gayatri B. Koolwal & Hussain A. Samad, . "Handbook on Impact Evaluation : Quantitative Methods and Practices," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 2693, September.
    24. Yamamoto, Toshiyuki & Madre, Jean-Loup & Kitamura, Ryuichi, 2004. "An analysis of the effects of French vehicle inspection program and grant for scrappage on household vehicle transaction," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 38(10), pages 905-926, December.
    25. Chen, Cynthia & Niemeier, Debbie, 2005. "A mass point vehicle scrappage model," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 39(5), pages 401-415, June.
    26. Li, Shanjun & Linn, Joshua & Spiller, Elisheba, 2013. "Evaluating “Cash-for-Clunkers”: Program effects on auto sales and the environment," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 65(2), pages 175-193.
    27. Greene, David L. & Patterson, Philip D. & Singh, Margaret & Li, Jia, 2005. "Feebates, rebates and gas-guzzler taxes: a study of incentives for increased fuel economy," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 33(6), pages 757-775, April.
    28. Ai, Chunrong & Norton, Edward C., 2003. "Interaction terms in logit and probit models," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 80(1), pages 123-129, July.
    29. Greene, David L. & Patterson, Philip D. & Singh, Margaret & Li, Jia, 2005. "Corrigendum to "Feebates, rebates and gas-guzzler taxes: a study of incentives for increased fuel economy" [Energy Policy 33 (2005) 757-775]," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 33(14), pages 1901-1902, September.
    30. Adamos Adamou & Sofronis Clerides & Theodoros Zachariadis, 2012. "Trade-offs in CO2-Oriented Vehicle Tax Reforms: A Case Study of Greece," Working Paper series 33_12, Rimini Centre for Economic Analysis.
    31. Simon Chang, 2012. "The Effect Of Taiwan'S National Health Insurance On Mortality Of The Elderly: Revisited," Health Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 21(11), pages 1257-1270, November.
    32. Mario Cleves & William W. Gould & Roberto G. Gutierrez & Yulia Marchenko, 2010. "An Introduction to Survival Analysis Using Stata," Stata Press books, StataCorp LP, edition 3, number saus3, Fall.
    33. Adamos Adamou & Sofronis Clerides & Theodoros Zachariadis, 2014. "Welfare Implications of Car Feebates: A Simulation Analysis," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 124(578), pages 420-443, August.
    34. Gruenspecht, Howard K, 1982. "Differentiated Regulation: The Case of Auto Emissions Standards," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 72(2), pages 328-331, May.
    35. Mark R. Jacobsen & Arthur A. van Benthem, 2015. "Vehicle Scrappage and Gasoline Policy," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 105(3), pages 1312-1338, March.
    36. Ryan Sandler, 2012. "Clunkers or Junkers? Adverse Selection in a Vehicle Retirement Program," American Economic Journal: Economic Policy, American Economic Association, vol. 4(4), pages 253-281, November.
    37. Rogan, Fionn & Dennehy, Emer & Daly, Hannah & Howley, Martin & Ó Gallachóir, Brian P., 2011. "Impacts of an emission based private car taxation policy - First year ex-post analysis," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 45(7), pages 583-597, August.
    38. Shao‐Hsun Keng & Sheng‐Jang Sheu, 2013. "The Effect Of National Health Insurance On Mortality And The Ses–Health Gradient: Evidence From The Elderly In Taiwan," Health Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 22(1), pages 52-72, January.
    39. Mark R. Jacobsen & Arthur A. van Benthem, 2013. "Vehicle Scrappage and Gasoline Policy," NBER Working Papers 19055, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    40. Davide Cerruti & Anna Alberini & Joshua Linn, 2017. "Charging Drivers by the Pound: The Effects of the UK Vehicle Tax System," CER-ETH Economics working paper series 17/271, CER-ETH - Center of Economic Research (CER-ETH) at ETH Zurich.
    41. Thomas Klier & Joshua Linn, 2015. "Using Taxes to Reduce Carbon Dioxide Emissions Rates of New Passenger Vehicles: Evidence from France, Germany, and Sweden," American Economic Journal: Economic Policy, American Economic Association, vol. 7(1), pages 212-242, February.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Filippini, Massimo & Wekhof, Tobias, 2021. "The effect of culture on energy efficient vehicle ownership," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 105(C).
    2. Beaudoin, Justin & Chen, Yuan & Heres, David R. & Kheiravar, Khaled H. & Lade, Gabriel E. & Yi, Fujin & Zhang, Wei & Lin Lawell, C.-Y. Cynthia, 2018. "Environmental Policies in the Transportation Sector: Taxes, Subsidies, Mandates, Restrictions, and Investment," ISU General Staff Papers 201808150700001050, Iowa State University, Department of Economics.
    3. Alberini, Anna & Bareit, Markus, 2019. "The effect of registration taxes on new car sales and emissions: Evidence from Switzerland," Resource and Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 56(C), pages 96-112.
    4. Davide Cerruti & Claudio Daminato & Massimo Filippini, 2019. "The Impact of Policy Awareness: Evidence from Vehicle Choices Response to Fiscal Incentives," CER-ETH Economics working paper series 19/316, CER-ETH - Center of Economic Research (CER-ETH) at ETH Zurich.
    5. Geir H. M. Bjertnæs, 2021. "Taxation of fuel and vehicles when emissions are constrained," Discussion Papers 949, Statistics Norway, Research Department.
    6. Callejas, Jerónimo & Linn,Joshua Abraham & Steinbuks,Jevgenijs, 2022. "Welfare and Environmental Benefits of Electric Vehicle Tax Policies in DevelopingCountries : Evidence from Colombia," Policy Research Working Paper Series 10001, The World Bank.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Grigolon, Laura & Reynaert, Mathias & Verboven, Frank, 2014. "Consumer valuation of fuel costs and the effectiveness of tax policy: Evidence from the European car market," CEPR Discussion Papers 10301, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    2. Gulati, Sumeet & McAusland, Carol & Sallee, James M., 2017. "Tax incidence with endogenous quality and costly bargaining: Theory and evidence from hybrid vehicle subsidies," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 155(C), pages 93-107.
    3. Reyer Gerlagh & Inge Bijgaart & Hans Nijland & Thomas Michielsen, 2018. "Fiscal Policy and $$\hbox {CO}_{2}$$ CO 2 Emissions of New Passenger Cars in the EU," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 69(1), pages 103-134, January.
    4. Sheldon, Tamara L. & Dua, Rubal, 2021. "How responsive is Saudi new vehicle fleet fuel economy to fuel-and vehicle-price policy levers?," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 97(C).
    5. Davide Cerruti & Anna Alberini & Joshua Linn, 2017. "Charging Drivers by the Pound: The Effects of the UK Vehicle Tax System," CER-ETH Economics working paper series 17/271, CER-ETH - Center of Economic Research (CER-ETH) at ETH Zurich.
    6. Alberini, Anna & Bareit, Markus, 2019. "The effect of registration taxes on new car sales and emissions: Evidence from Switzerland," Resource and Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 56(C), pages 96-112.
    7. Laborda, Juan & Moral, María J., 2019. "Scrappage by age: Cash for Clunkers matters!," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 124(C), pages 488-504.
    8. Davide Cerruti & Anna Alberini & Joshua Linn, 2019. "Charging Drivers by the Pound: How Does the UK Vehicle Tax System Affect CO2 Emissions?," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 74(1), pages 99-129, September.
    9. Itamar Milrad, 2018. "GREEN TAXATION: THE INFLUENCE AND DESIRABILITY OF THE FEEBATE SCHEME IN THE ISRAELI NEW CAR MARKETIn August 2009, a “green taxation”," Israel Economic Review, Bank of Israel, vol. 16(2), pages 1-36.
    10. Anna Alberini & Markus Bareit, 2016. "The Effect of Registration Taxes on New Car Sales and Emissions: Evidence from Switzerland," CER-ETH Economics working paper series 16/245, CER-ETH - Center of Economic Research (CER-ETH) at ETH Zurich.
    11. Anna Alberini, Markus Bareit and Massimo Filippini, 2016. "What is the Effect of Fuel Efficiency Information on Car Prices? Evidence from Switzerland," The Energy Journal, International Association for Energy Economics, vol. 0(Number 3).
    12. van den Bijgaart, Inge, 2016. "Essays in environmental economics and policy," Other publications TiSEM 298bee2a-cb08-4173-9fe1-8, Tilburg University, School of Economics and Management.
    13. Gerlagh, Reyer & van den Bijgaart, Inge & Nijland, Hans & Michielsen, Thomas, 2015. "Fiscal Policy and CO2 Emissions of New Passenger Cars in the EU," Climate Change and Sustainable Development 202239, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei (FEEM).
    14. Jiménez, Juan Luis & Perdiguero, Jordi & García, Carmen, 2016. "Evaluation of subsidies programs to sell green cars: Impact on prices, quantities and efficiency," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 47(C), pages 105-118.
    15. Werner Antweiler & Sumeet Gulati, 2013. "Market-Based Policies for Green Motoring in Canada," Canadian Public Policy, University of Toronto Press, vol. 39(s2), pages 81-94, August.
    16. repec:boi:isrerv:v:16:y:2019:i:2:p:1-36 is not listed on IDEAS
    17. Bergantino, Angela S. & Intini, Mario & Percoco, Marco, 2021. "New car taxation and its unintended environmental consequences," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 148(C), pages 36-48.
    18. Sallee, James M. & West, Sarah E. & Fan, Wei, 2016. "Do consumers recognize the value of fuel economy? Evidence from used car prices and gasoline price fluctuations," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 135(C), pages 61-73.
    19. Mark Hoekstra & Steven L. Puller & Jeremy West, 2017. "Cash for Corollas: When Stimulus Reduces Spending," American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, American Economic Association, vol. 9(3), pages 1-35, July.
    20. Gerlagh, Reyer & van den Bijgaart, Inge & Nijland, Hans & Michielsen, Thomas, 2015. "Fiscal Policy and CO2 Emissions of New Passenger Cars in the EU," Climate Change and Sustainable Development 202239, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei (FEEM).
    21. Matthew E. Kahn & Jerry Nickelsburg, 2016. "An Economic Analysis of U.S Airline Fuel Economy Dynamics from 1991 to 2015," NBER Working Papers 22830, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Vehicle retirement; Emissions-based taxes; bonus/malus; difference-in-difference; survival analysis; Switzerland;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • L62 - Industrial Organization - - Industry Studies: Manufacturing - - - Automobiles; Other Transportation Equipment; Related Parts and Equipment
    • Q4 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Energy
    • Q5 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eth:wpswif:16-257. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/iwethch.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/iwethch.html .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.