Revisiting the theory of optimum currency areas: Is the CFA franc zone sustainable?
This paper aims at explaining why the CFA countries have successfully maintained a currency union for several decades, despite failing to meet many of optimum currency area criteria. We suggest that the CFA zone, while not optimal, has been at least sustainable. We test this sustainability hypothesis by relying on the Behavioral Equilibrium Exchange Rate (BEER) approach. In particular, we assess and compare the convergence process of real exchange rates towards equilibrium for the CFA zone countries and a sample of other sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries. Our findings evidence that internal and external balances have been fostered and adjustments facilitated in the CFA zone as a whole—compared to other SSA countries—as well as in each of its member countries.
|Date of creation:||2012|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: 200 Avenue de la République, Bât. G - 92001 Nanterre Cedex|
Web page: http://economix.fr
More information through EDIRC
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Virginie Coudert & Cécile Couharde & Valérie Mignon, 2012.
"On currency misalignments within the euro area,"
2012-07, CEPII research center.
- Josep Lluis Carrion Silvestre & Tomas del Barrio Castro & Enrique Lopez Bazo, 2003.
"Breaking the panels. An application to the GDP per capita,"
Working Papers in Economics
97, Universitat de Barcelona. Espai de Recerca en Economia.
- Josep Lluís Carrion-i-Silvestre & Tomás del Barrio-Castro & Enrique López-Bazo, 2005. "Breaking the panels: An application to the GDP per capita," Econometrics Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 8(2), pages 159-175, 07.
- Christophe Hurlin & Valérie Mignon, 2007. "Second Generation Panel Unit Root Tests," Working Papers halshs-00159842, HAL.
- Paul Grauwe, 1996. "The economics of convergence: Towards monetary union in Europe," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer, vol. 132(1), pages 1-27, March.
- Coleman, Simeon, 2004. "An Aggregate View of Macroeconomic Shocks in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Comparative Study Using Innovation Accounting," Working Paper Series UNU-WIDER Research Paper , World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
- David Fielding & Kalvinder Shields, 2000.
"Modeling Macroeconomic Shocks in the CFA Franc Zone,"
Discussion Papers in Economics
00/7, Department of Economics, University of Leicester.
- Fielding, David & Shields, Kalvinder, 2001. "Modelling macroeconomic shocks in the CFA Franc Zone," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 66(1), pages 199-223, October.
- Agnès Bénassy-Quéré & Maylis Coupet, 2005.
"On the Adequacy of Monetary Arrangements in Sub-Saharan Africa,"
The World Economy,
Wiley Blackwell, vol. 28(3), pages 349-373, 03.
- A. Bénassy-Quéré & Maylis Coupet, 2003. "On the Adequacy of Monetary Arrangements in Sub-Saharian Africa," THEMA Working Papers 2003-38, THEMA (THéorie Economique, Modélisation et Applications), Université de Cergy-Pontoise.
- Agnès Bénassy-Quéré & Maylis Coupet, 2003. "On the Adequacy of Monetary Arrangements in Sub-Saharian Africa," Working Papers 2003-11, CEPII research center.
- Joakim Westerlund, 2005.
"New Simple Tests for Panel Cointegration,"
Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 24(3), pages 297-316.
- De Grauwe, Paul, 2011. "Governance of a Fragile Eurozone," CEPS Papers 5523, Centre for European Policy Studies.
- Raimundo Soto & Ibrahim A. Elbadawi, 2007. "Theory and Empirics of Real Exchange Rates in Developing Countries," Documentos de Trabajo 324, Instituto de Economia. Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile..
- Pesaran, M. Hashem, 2004.
"General Diagnostic Tests for Cross Section Dependence in Panels,"
IZA Discussion Papers
1240, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Pesaran, M.H., 2004. "‘General Diagnostic Tests for Cross Section Dependence in Panels’," Cambridge Working Papers in Economics 0435, Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge.
- M. Hashem Pesaran, 2004. "General Diagnostic Tests for Cross Section Dependence in Panels," CESifo Working Paper Series 1229, CESifo Group Munich.
- Qureshi, Mahvash Saeed & Tsangarides, Charalambos G., 2012.
"Hard or Soft Pegs? Choice of Exchange Rate Regime and Trade in Africa,"
Elsevier, vol. 40(4), pages 667-680.
- Mahvash Saeed Qureshi & Charalambos G. Tsangarides, 2011. "Exchange Rate Regimes and Trade: Is Africa Different?," Working Paper Series UNU-WIDER Working Paper W, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
- Shantayanan Devarajan & Dani Rodrik, 1991.
"Do the Benefits of Fixed Exchange Rates Outweigh Their Costs? The Franc Zone in Africa,"
NBER Working Papers
3727, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Devarajan, Shantayanan & Rodrik, Dani, 1991. "Do the benefits of fixed exchange rates outweigh their costs? The Franc Zone in Africa," Policy Research Working Paper Series 777, The World Bank.
- Alberto Alesina & Robert J. Barro, 2000.
NBER Working Papers
7927, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Silvana Tenreyro & Robert J. Barro, 2003.
"Economic Effects of Currency Unions,"
NBER Working Papers
9435, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Basher, Syed A. & Westerlund, Joakim, 2008.
"Panel Cointegration and the Monetary Exchange Rate Model,"
10453, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Basher, Syed A. & Westerlund, Joakim, 2009. "Panel cointegration and the monetary exchange rate model," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 26(2), pages 506-513, March.
- Yasser Abdih & Charalambos Tsangarides, 2010. "FEER for the CFA franc," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 42(16), pages 2009-2029.
- Lane, Philip R. & Milesi-Ferretti, Gian Maria, 2006.
"The External Wealth of Nations Mark II: Revised and Extended Estimates of Foreign Assets and Liabilities, 1970-2004,"
CEPR Discussion Papers
5644, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Lane, Philip R. & Milesi-Ferretti, Gian Maria, 2007. "The external wealth of nations mark II: Revised and extended estimates of foreign assets and liabilities, 1970-2004," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 73(2), pages 223-250, November.
- Philip R. Lane & Gian Maria Milesi-Ferretti, 2006. "The External Wealth of Nations Mark II: Revised and Extended Estimates of Foreign Assets and Liabilities,1970–2004," The Institute for International Integration Studies Discussion Paper Series iiisdp126, IIIS.
- Michel Galy & Michael T. Hadjimichael, 1997. "The CFA Franc Zone and the EMU," IMF Working Papers 97/156, International Monetary Fund.
- Cécile Couharde & Issiaka Coulibaly & Olivier Damette, 2011. "Misalignments and Dynamics of Real Exchange Rates in the CFA Franc Zone," EconomiX Working Papers 2011-28, University of Paris West - Nanterre la Défense, EconomiX.
- Elbadawi, Ibrahim & Majd, Nader, 1996. "Adjustment and economic performance under a fixed exchange rate: A comparative analysis of the CFA zone," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 24(5), pages 939-951, May.
- Virginie Coudert & Cécile Couharde & Valérie Mignon, 2008.
"Do Terms of Trade Drive Real Exchange Rates? Comparing Oil and Commodity Currencies,"
2008-32, CEPII research center.
- Virginie Coudert & Cécile Couharde & Valérie Mignon, 2011. "Does Euro or Dollar Pegging Impact the Real Exchange Rate? The Case of Oil and Commodity Currencies," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 34(9), pages 1557-1592, 09.
- Simeon Coleman, 2008.
"Inflation persistence in the Franc Zone: evidence from disaggregated prices,"
2008/16, Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham Business School, Economics Division.
- Coleman, Simeon, 2010. "Inflation persistence in the Franc zone: Evidence from disaggregated prices," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 32(1), pages 426-442, March.
- George Tavlas, 1994. "The theory of monetary integration," Open Economies Review, Springer, vol. 5(2), pages 211-230, March.
- Simeon Coleman, 2008. "Estimating Equilibrium Real Exchange Rates in the Franc Zone," Journal of African Economies, Centre for the Study of African Economies (CSAE), vol. 17(4), pages 600-634, August.
- Charalambos Tsangarides & Pierre Ewenczyk & Michal Hulej & Mahvash Saeed Qureshi, 2009. "Are Africa's Currency Unions Good for Trade?," IMF Staff Papers, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 56(4), pages 876-918, November.
- Etienne B. Yehoue, 2006. "The CFA Arrangements: More Than Just an Aid Substitute?," Economie Internationale, CEPII research center, issue 107, pages 107-133.
- Cashin, Paul & Cespedes, Luis F. & Sahay, Ratna, 2004.
"Commodity currencies and the real exchange rate,"
Journal of Development Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 75(1), pages 239-268, October.
- Cheung, Yin-Wong & Lai, Kon S., 2008.
"Nominal exchange rate flexibility and real exchange rate adjustment: New evidence from dual exchange rates in developing countries,"
Japan and the World Economy,
Elsevier, vol. 20(3), pages 415-434, August.
- Yin-wong Cheung & Kon S. Lai, 2007. "Nominal Exchange Rate Flexibility and Real Exchange Rate Adjustment: New Evidence from Dual Exchange Rates in Developing Countries," Working Papers 092007, Hong Kong Institute for Monetary Research.
- repec:ebl:ecbull:v:6:y:2008:i:12:p:1-10 is not listed on IDEAS
- Zhao, Xiaodan & Kim, Yoonbai, 2009. "Is the CFA Franc Zone an Optimum Currency Area?," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 37(12), pages 1877-1886, December.
- David Fielding & Kevin Lee & Kalvinder Shields, 2012. "Does one size fit all? Modelling macroeconomic linkages in the West African Economic and Monetary Union," Economic Change and Restructuring, Springer, vol. 45(1), pages 45-70, February.
- Charalambos G. Tsangarides & Yasser Abdih, 2006. "FEER for the CFA Franc," IMF Working Papers 06/236, International Monetary Fund.
- Broda, Christian, 2004. "Terms of trade and exchange rate regimes in developing countries," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 63(1), pages 31-58, May.
- Kenneth Rogoff, 1996. "The Purchasing Power Parity Puzzle," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 34(2), pages 647-668, June.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:drm:wpaper:2012-34. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Valérie Mignon)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.