IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/cpr/ceprdp/1933.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Will Trade Liberalization Harm the Environment? The Case of Indonesia 2020

Author

Listed:
  • Anderson, Kym
  • Strutt, Anna

Abstract

Most-favoured-nation (MFN) trade liberalizations will always improve global economic welfare provided globally optimal environmental, and other, policies are in place. But since the latter proviso is not met in practice, empirical studies of the environmental and resource depletion effects of such reforms are needed to convince sceptics that trade reform is still worthwhile. This paper provides a methodology for doing that. It is illustrated with a case study of Indonesia, a large newly industrializing country that is rich in natural resources and committed to taking part in major multilateral and regional trade liberalizations over the next two decades. A modified version of the global CGE model known as GTAP is used to project the world economy to 2010 and 2020 both with and without those reforms. An environmental module is attached to the Indonesian part of that global CGE model so as to measure the effects of changes in economic activity on air and water pollution. The proportional contributions to environmental indicators of changes in the level and composition of output, and changes in production techniques, are identified. A base case projection without trade reform is compared with alternative scenarios involving full global implementation of Uruguay Round commitments by 2010, and the additional move to MFN free trade by APEC countries by 2020. The study suggests that, at least with respect to air and water, trade policy reforms slated for the next two decades would in many cases improve the environment and reduce the depletion of natural resources and, in the worst cases, would add only slightly to environmental degradation – even without toughening the enforcement of existing environmental regulations or adding new ones, and even if the reforms stimulate a faster rate of economic growth.

Suggested Citation

  • Anderson, Kym & Strutt, Anna, 1998. "Will Trade Liberalization Harm the Environment? The Case of Indonesia 2020," CEPR Discussion Papers 1933, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  • Handle: RePEc:cpr:ceprdp:1933
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.cepr.org/active/publications/discussion_papers/dp.php?dpno=1933
    Download Restriction: CEPR Discussion Papers are free to download for our researchers, subscribers and members. If you fall into one of these categories but have trouble downloading our papers, please contact us at subscribers@cepr.org

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version below or search for a different version of it.

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Liu, Jing & van Leeuwen, Nico & Vo, Tri Thanh & Tyers, Rodney & Hertel, Thomas W., 1998. "Disaggregating Labor Payments By Skill Level In Gtap," Technical Papers 28722, Purdue University, Center for Global Trade Analysis, Global Trade Analysis Project.
    2. Chichilnisky, Graciela, 1994. "North-South Trade and the Global Environment," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 84(4), pages 851-874, September.
    3. Harrison, W Jill & Pearson, K R, 1996. "Computing Solutions for Large General Equilibrium Models Using GEMPACK," Computational Economics, Springer;Society for Computational Economics, vol. 9(2), pages 83-127, May.
    4. Beghin, John C. & Bowland, Brad J. & Dessus, Sebastien & Roland-Holst, David & Van der Mensbrugghe, Dominique, 1999. "Trade, Environment, and Public Health in Chile. Evidence from an Economywide Model," Staff General Research Papers Archive 1904, Iowa State University, Department of Economics.
    5. Martin, W. & Winters, L.A., 1995. "The Uruguay Round and the Developing Countries," World Bank - Discussion Papers 307, World Bank.
    6. M.A. Cole & A.J. Rayner & J.M. Bates, 1998. "Trade Liberalisation and the Environment: The Case of the Uruguay Round," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 21(3), pages 337-347, May.
    7. Jeffrey D. Sachs & Andrew Warner, 1995. "Economic Reform and the Process of Global Integration," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 26(1, 25th A), pages 1-118.
    8. Selden Thomas M. & Song Daqing, 1994. "Environmental Quality and Development: Is There a Kuznets Curve for Air Pollution Emissions?," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 27(2), pages 147-162, September.
    9. Hertel, Thomas, 1997. "Global Trade Analysis: Modeling and applications," GTAP Books, Center for Global Trade Analysis, Department of Agricultural Economics, Purdue University, number 7685.
    10. Beghin, John & Dessus, Sebastien & Roland-Holst, David & van der Mensbrugghe, Dominique, 1997. "The trade and environment nexus in Mexican agriculture. A general equilibrium analysis," Agricultural Economics, Blackwell, vol. 17(2-3), pages 115-131, December.
    11. Edwards, Sebastian, 1992. "Trade orientation, distortions and growth in developing countries," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 39(1), pages 31-57, July.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Anderson, Kym & Strutt, Anna, 1999. "Impact Of East Asia’s Growth Interruption and Policy Responses: The Case Of Indonesia," 1999 Conference (43th), January 20-22, 1999, Christchurch, New Zealand 125027, Australian Agricultural and Resource Economics Society.
    2. Damania, Richard & Fredriksson, Per G. & List, John A., 2003. "Trade liberalization, corruption, and environmental policy formation: theory and evidence," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 46(3), pages 490-512, November.
    3. Coxhead, Ian, 2007. "A New Resource Curse? Impacts of China's Boom on Comparative Advantage and Resource Dependence in Southeast Asia," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 35(7), pages 1099-1119, July.
    4. Saeed Solaymani & Mehdi Shokrinia, 2016. "Economic and environmental effects of trade liberalization in Malaysia," Journal of Social and Economic Development, Springer;Institute for Social and Economic Change, vol. 18(1), pages 101-120, October.
    5. Anriquez, Gustavo, 2002. "Trade And The Environment: An Economic Literature Survey," Working Papers 28598, University of Maryland, Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics.
    6. ADKINS Liwayway G. & GARBACCIO Richard F., "undated". "Simulating the Effects of the FTAA on Global Carbon Emissions: A General Equilibrium Analysis," EcoMod2003 330700000, EcoMod.
    7. Hakimi, Abdelaziz & Hamdi, Helmi, 2016. "Trade liberalization, FDI inflows, environmental quality and economic growth: A comparative analysis between Tunisia and Morocco," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 58(C), pages 1445-1456.
    8. Harvey E. Lapan & Shiva Sikdar, 2017. "Can Trade Be Good for the Environment?," Journal of Public Economic Theory, Association for Public Economic Theory, vol. 19(2), pages 267-288, April.
    9. Sonja Peterson, 2008. "Greenhouse gas mitigation in developing countries through technology transfer?: a survey of empirical evidence," Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, Springer, vol. 13(3), pages 283-305, March.
    10. Bohringer, Christoph & Loschel, Andreas, 2006. "Computable general equilibrium models for sustainability impact assessment: Status quo and prospects," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 60(1), pages 49-64, November.
    11. Gumilang, Howard & Mukhopadhyay, Kakali & Thomassin, Paul J., 2011. "Economic and environmental impacts of trade liberalization: The case of Indonesia," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 28(3), pages 1030-1041, May.
    12. Coxhead, Ian A., 2002. "Development And The Environment In Asia: A Survey Of Recent Literature," Staff Papers 12650, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Department of Agricultural and Applied Economics.
    13. Rae, Allan N. & Strutt, Anna, 2007. "The WTO, Agricultural Trade Reform and the Environment: Nitrogen and Agro-chemical Indicators for the OECD," Estey Centre Journal of International Law and Trade Policy, Estey Centre for Law and Economics in International Trade, vol. 8(1), pages 1-22.
    14. Hadjinikolov, Dimitar, 2010. "Глобалното Направление На Общата Търговска Политика На Ес В Началото На Новия Век
      [Global direction of EU common commercial policy at the beginning of the new century]
      ," MPRA Paper 25244, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    15. Liu, Xianbing & Ishikawa, Masanobu & Wang, Can & Dong, Yanli & Liu, Wenling, 2010. "Analyses of CO2 emissions embodied in Japan-China trade," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(3), pages 1510-1518, March.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Global CGE Model; Indonesia; Trade and Environment;

    JEL classification:

    • F13 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Trade Policy; International Trade Organizations
    • F14 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Empirical Studies of Trade
    • F15 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Economic Integration
    • F17 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Trade Forecasting and Simulation
    • O13 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Agriculture; Natural Resources; Environment; Other Primary Products
    • Q2 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Renewable Resources and Conservation
    • Q4 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Energy

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:cpr:ceprdp:1933. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.