Will Trade Liberalization Harm the Environment? The Case of Indonesia to 2020
Most-favoured-nation (MFN) trade liberalizations willalways improve global economic welfare providedglobally optimal environmental and other policies arein place. But since the latter proviso is not met inpractice, empirical studies of the environmental andresource depletion effects of such reforms are neededto determine whether trade reform is still worthwhile.This paper provides a methodology for doing that. Itis illustrated with a case study of Indonesia, a largenewly industrializing country that is rich in naturalresources and committed to taking part in majormultilateral and regional trade liberalizations overthe next two decades. A modified version of theglobal CGE model known as GTAP is used to project theworld economy to 2010 and 2020 without and with thosereforms. An environmental module is attached to theIndonesian part of that global CGE model so as tomeasure the effects of changes in economic activity onair and water pollution. The proportionalcontributions to environmental indicators of changesin the level and composition of output, and changes inproduction techniques, are identified. A base caseprojection without trade reform is compared withalternative scenarios involving full globalimplementation of Uruguay Round commitments by 2010,and the additional move to MFN free trade by APECcountries by 2020. The study suggests that, at leastwith respect to air and water, trade policy reformsslated for the next two decades would in many casesimprove the environment and reduce the depletion ofnatural resources and in the worst cases would addonly slightly to environmental degradation – evenwithout toughening the enforcement of existingenvironmental regulations or adding new ones, and evenif the reforms stimulate a faster rate of economicgrowth. Copyright Kluwer Academic Publishers 2000
Volume (Year): 17 (2000)
Issue (Month): 3 (November)
|Contact details of provider:|| Web page: http://www.springerlink.com/link.asp?id=100263|
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Chichilnisky, Graciela, 1994. "North-South Trade and the Global Environment," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 84(4), pages 851-74, September.
- Harrison, W Jill & Pearson, K R, 1996.
"Computing Solutions for Large General Equilibrium Models Using GEMPACK,"
Society for Computational Economics, vol. 9(2), pages 83-127, May.
- W. Jill Harrison & K.R. Pearson, 1994. "Computing Solutions for Large General Equilibrium Models Using GEMPACK," Centre of Policy Studies/IMPACT Centre Working Papers ip-64, Victoria University, Centre of Policy Studies/IMPACT Centre.
- Leamer, Edward E, 1987. "Paths of Development in the Three-Factor, n-Good General Equilibrium Model," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 95(5), pages 961-99, October.
- Beghin, John C. & Bowland, Brad J. & Dessus, Sebastien & Roland-Holst, David & Van der Mensbrugghe, Dominique, 1999. "Trade, Environment, and Public Health in Chile. Evidence from an Economywide Model," Staff General Research Papers 1904, Iowa State University, Department of Economics.
- Gene M. Grossman & Alan B. Krueger, 1995.
"Economic Growth and the Environment,"
The Quarterly Journal of Economics,
Oxford University Press, vol. 110(2), pages 353-377.
- Martin, Will & Mitra, Devashish, 1999. "Productivity growth and convergence in agriculture and manufacturing," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2171, The World Bank.
- Kym Anderson & Mari Pangestu, 1998. "Structural Changes in a Reforming World Economy: Implications for Indonesia," Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 34(3), pages 85-113.
- Jeffrey Sachs & Andrew Warner, 1995.
"Economic Reform and the Progress of Global Integration,"
Harvard Institute of Economic Research Working Papers
1733, Harvard - Institute of Economic Research.
- Jeffrey D. Sachs & Andrew Warner, 1995. "Economic Reform and the Process of Global Integration," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 26(1, 25th A), pages 1-118.
- Beghin, John C. & Dessus, Sebastien & Roland-Holst, David & Mensbrugghe, Dominique van der, 1997.
"The trade and environment nexus in Mexican agriculture. A general equilibrium analysis,"
Agricultural Economics of Agricultural Economists,
International Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 17(2-3), December.
- Beghin, John & Dessus, Sebastien & Roland-Holst, David & van der Mensbrugghe, Dominique, 1997. "The trade and environment nexus in Mexican agriculture. A general equilibrium analysis," Agricultural Economics, Blackwell, vol. 17(2-3), pages 115-131, December.
- Martin, W. & Winters, L.A., 1995. "The Uruguay Round and the Developing Countries," World Bank - Discussion Papers 307, World Bank.
- Hettige, Hemamala & Mani, Muthukumara & Wheeler, David, 1998. "Industrial pollution in economic development: Kuznets revisited," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1876, The World Bank.
- Ann Harrison, 1995.
"Openness and Growth: A Time-Series, Cross-Country Analysis for Developing Countries,"
NBER Working Papers
5221, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Harrison, Ann, 1996. "Openness and growth: A time-series, cross-country analysis for developing countries," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 48(2), pages 419-447, March.
- Harrison, Ann, 1991. "Openness and growth : a time series, cross-country analysis for developing countries," Policy Research Working Paper Series 809, The World Bank.
- Edwards, Sebastian, 1992.
"Trade orientation, distortions and growth in developing countries,"
Journal of Development Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 39(1), pages 31-57, July.
- Sebastian Edwards, 1991. "Trade Orientation, Distortions and Growth in Developing Countries," NBER Working Papers 3716, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Hertel, Thomas, 1997. "Global Trade Analysis: Modeling and applications," GTAP Books, Center for Global Trade Analysis, Department of Agricultural Economics, Purdue University, number 7685, March.
- Baldwin, Richard, 1990.
"Measurable Dynamic Gains from Trade,"
Working Paper Series
270, Research Institute of Industrial Economics.
- M.A. Cole & A.J. Rayner & J.M. Bates, 1998. "Trade Liberalisation and the Environment: The Case of the Uruguay Round," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 21(3), pages 337-347, 05.
- Selden Thomas M. & Song Daqing, 1994. "Environmental Quality and Development: Is There a Kuznets Curve for Air Pollution Emissions?," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 27(2), pages 147-162, September.
- Liu, Jing & Nico van Leeuwen & Tri Thanh Vo & Rod Tyers & Thomas W. Hertel, 1998. "Disaggregating Labor Payments by Skill Level in GTAP," GTAP Technical Papers 314, Center for Global Trade Analysis, Department of Agricultural Economics, Purdue University.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:kap:enreec:v:17:y:2000:i:3:p:203-232. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Sonal Shukla)or (Rebekah McClure)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.