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Will Trade Liberalization Harm the Environment? The Case of Indonesia to 2020

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  • Anna Strutt
  • Kym Anderson

Abstract

Most-favoured-nation (MFN) trade liberalizations willalways improve global economic welfare providedglobally optimal environmental and other policies arein place. But since the latter proviso is not met inpractice, empirical studies of the environmental andresource depletion effects of such reforms are neededto determine whether trade reform is still worthwhile.This paper provides a methodology for doing that. Itis illustrated with a case study of Indonesia, a largenewly industrializing country that is rich in naturalresources and committed to taking part in majormultilateral and regional trade liberalizations overthe next two decades. A modified version of theglobal CGE model known as GTAP is used to project theworld economy to 2010 and 2020 without and with thosereforms. An environmental module is attached to theIndonesian part of that global CGE model so as tomeasure the effects of changes in economic activity onair and water pollution. The proportionalcontributions to environmental indicators of changesin the level and composition of output, and changes inproduction techniques, are identified. A base caseprojection without trade reform is compared withalternative scenarios involving full globalimplementation of Uruguay Round commitments by 2010,and the additional move to MFN free trade by APECcountries by 2020. The study suggests that, at leastwith respect to air and water, trade policy reformsslated for the next two decades would in many casesimprove the environment and reduce the depletion ofnatural resources and in the worst cases would addonly slightly to environmental degradation – evenwithout toughening the enforcement of existingenvironmental regulations or adding new ones, and evenif the reforms stimulate a faster rate of economicgrowth. Copyright Kluwer Academic Publishers 2000

Suggested Citation

  • Anna Strutt & Kym Anderson, 2000. "Will Trade Liberalization Harm the Environment? The Case of Indonesia to 2020," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 17(3), pages 203-232, November.
  • Handle: RePEc:kap:enreec:v:17:y:2000:i:3:p:203-232
    DOI: 10.1023/A:1026480823657
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    Cited by:

    1. Saeed Solaymani & Mehdi Shokrinia, 2016. "Economic and environmental effects of trade liberalization in Malaysia," Journal of Social and Economic Development, Springer;Institute for Social and Economic Change, vol. 18(1), pages 101-120, October.
    2. ADKINS Liwayway G. & GARBACCIO Richard F., 2010. "Simulating the Effects of the FTAA on Global Carbon Emissions: A General Equilibrium Analysis," EcoMod2003 330700000, EcoMod.
    3. Hakimi, Abdelaziz & Hamdi, Helmi, 2016. "Trade liberalization, FDI inflows, environmental quality and economic growth: A comparative analysis between Tunisia and Morocco," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 58(C), pages 1445-1456.
    4. Harvey E. Lapan & Shiva Sikdar, 2017. "Can Trade Be Good for the Environment?," Journal of Public Economic Theory, Association for Public Economic Theory, vol. 19(2), pages 267-288, April.
    5. Damania, Richard & Fredriksson, Per G. & List, John A., 2003. "Trade liberalization, corruption, and environmental policy formation: theory and evidence," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 46(3), pages 490-512, November.
    6. Gumilang, Howard & Mukhopadhyay, Kakali & Thomassin, Paul J., 2011. "Economic and environmental impacts of trade liberalization: The case of Indonesia," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 28(3), pages 1030-1041, May.
    7. Coxhead, Ian A., 2002. "Development And The Environment In Asia: A Survey Of Recent Literature," Staff Papers 12650, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Department of Agricultural and Applied Economics.
    8. Rae, Allan N. & Strutt, Anna, 2007. "The WTO, Agricultural Trade Reform and the Environment: Nitrogen and Agro-chemical Indicators for the OECD," Estey Centre Journal of International Law and Trade Policy, Estey Centre for Law and Economics in International Trade, vol. 8(1), pages 1-22.
    9. Anderson, Kym & Strutt, Anna, 1999. "Impact Of East Asia’s Growth Interruption and Policy Responses: The Case Of Indonesia," 1999 Conference (43th), January 20-22, 1999, Christchurch, New Zealand 125027, Australian Agricultural and Resource Economics Society.
    10. Coxhead, Ian, 2007. "A New Resource Curse? Impacts of China's Boom on Comparative Advantage and Resource Dependence in Southeast Asia," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 35(7), pages 1099-1119, July.
    11. Anriquez, Gustavo, 2002. "Trade And The Environment: An Economic Literature Survey," Working Papers 28598, University of Maryland, Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics.
    12. Sonja Peterson, 2008. "Greenhouse gas mitigation in developing countries through technology transfer?: a survey of empirical evidence," Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, Springer, vol. 13(3), pages 283-305, March.
    13. Bohringer, Christoph & Loschel, Andreas, 2006. "Computable general equilibrium models for sustainability impact assessment: Status quo and prospects," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 60(1), pages 49-64, November.
    14. Wang, Ying & Chen, Xiangyuan, 2020. "Natural resource endowment and ecological efficiency in China: Revisiting resource curse in the context of ecological efficiency," Resources Policy, Elsevier, vol. 66(C).
    15. Hadjinikolov, Dimitar, 2010. "Глобалното Направление На Общата Търговска Политика На Ес В Началото На Новия Век [Global direction of EU common commercial policy at the beginning of the new century]," MPRA Paper 25244, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    16. Liu, Xianbing & Ishikawa, Masanobu & Wang, Can & Dong, Yanli & Liu, Wenling, 2010. "Analyses of CO2 emissions embodied in Japan-China trade," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(3), pages 1510-1518, March.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    global CGE model; Indonesia; trade and environment;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • F13 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Trade Policy; International Trade Organizations
    • F14 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Empirical Studies of Trade
    • F15 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Economic Integration
    • F17 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Trade Forecasting and Simulation
    • O13 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Agriculture; Natural Resources; Environment; Other Primary Products
    • Q2 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Renewable Resources and Conservation
    • Q4 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Energy

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