IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/cns/cnscwp/201502.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Firm Performance when Ownership is very Concentrated: Evidence from a Semiparametric Panel

Author

Listed:
  • M. Hamadi
  • A. Heinen

Abstract

We consider the effect on performance of very large controlling shareholders, who are mostly organized in voting blocks and business groups, in a sample of Belgian listed firms from 1991 to 2006. Since the shape of the relation between ownership and firm value is a controversial issue in corporate finance, we use semiparametric local-linear kernel-based panel models. These models allow us not to impose a priori functional restrictions on the relation between ownership and performance. Our semiparametric analysis shows that the effect on performance varies depending on the size of ownership stakes and that there are departures from linearity.

Suggested Citation

  • M. Hamadi & A. Heinen, 2015. "Firm Performance when Ownership is very Concentrated: Evidence from a Semiparametric Panel," Working Paper CRENoS 201502, Centre for North South Economic Research, University of Cagliari and Sassari, Sardinia.
  • Handle: RePEc:cns:cnscwp:201502
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://crenos.unica.it/crenos/node/6474
    Download Restriction: no

    File URL: https://crenos.unica.it/crenos/sites/default/files/WP15-02.pdf
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Florackis, Chrisostomos & Kostakis, Alexandros & Ozkan, Aydin, 2009. "Managerial ownership and performance," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 62(12), pages 1350-1357, December.
    2. Stijn Claessens & Simeon Djankov & Joseph P. H. Fan & Larry H. P. Lang, 2002. "Disentangling the Incentive and Entrenchment Effects of Large Shareholdings," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 57(6), pages 2741-2771, December.
    3. Barca, Fabrizio & Becht, Marco (ed.), 2001. "The Control of Corporate Europe," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780199247424.
    4. Simon Johnson, 2000. "Tunneling," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 90(2), pages 22-27, May.
    5. David Sraer & David Thesmar, 2007. "Performance and Behavior of Family Firms: Evidence from the French Stock Market," Journal of the European Economic Association, MIT Press, vol. 5(4), pages 709-751, June.
    6. Mike Burkart & Fausto Panunzi & Andrei Shleifer, 2003. "Family Firms," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 58(5), pages 2167-2201, October.
    7. Xihong Lin, 2004. "Equivalent kernels of smoothing splines in nonparametric regression for clustered/longitudinal data," Biometrika, Biometrika Trust, vol. 91(1), pages 177-193, March.
    8. Harvey James, 1999. "Owner as Manager, Extended Horizons and the Family Firm," International Journal of the Economics of Business, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 6(1), pages 41-55.
    9. Villalonga, Belen & Amit, Raphael, 2006. "How do family ownership, control and management affect firm value?," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 80(2), pages 385-417, May.
    10. La Porta, Rafael & Lopez-de-Silanes, Florencio & Shleifer, Andrei & Vishny, Robert, 2000. "Investor protection and corporate governance," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 58(1-2), pages 3-27.
    11. Leech, Dennis, 2002. "Shareholder Voting Power and Ownership Control of Companies," Economic Research Papers 269335, University of Warwick - Department of Economics.
    12. Clifford G. Holderness, 2003. "A survey of blockholders and corporate control," Economic Policy Review, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, vol. 9(Apr), pages 51-64.
    13. Stulz, ReneM., 1988. "Managerial control of voting rights : Financing policies and the market for corporate control," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 20(1-2), pages 25-54, January.
    14. Shleifer, Andrei & Vishny, Robert W, 1997. "A Survey of Corporate Governance," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 52(2), pages 737-783, June.
    15. Julian Franks & Colin Mayer & Paolo Volpin & Hannes F. Wagner, 2012. "The Life Cycle of Family Ownership: International Evidence," The Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 25(6), pages 1675-1712.
    16. Zhou, Xianbo & Li, Kui-Wai, 2011. "Inequality and development: Evidence from semiparametric estimation with panel data," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 113(3), pages 203-207.
    17. Himmelberg, Charles P. & Hubbard, R. Glenn & Palia, Darius, 1999. "Understanding the determinants of managerial ownership and the link between ownership and performance," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 53(3), pages 353-384, September.
    18. Shleifer, Andrei & Vishny, Robert W, 1986. "Large Shareholders and Corporate Control," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 94(3), pages 461-488, June.
    19. Henderson, Daniel J. & Ullah, Aman, 2005. "A nonparametric random effects estimator," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 88(3), pages 403-407, September.
    20. Demsetz, Harold & Villalonga, Belen, 2001. "Ownership structure and corporate performance," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 7(3), pages 209-233, September.
    21. Isakov, Dušan & Weisskopf, Jean-Philippe, 2014. "Are founding families special blockholders? An investigation of controlling shareholder influence on firm performance," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 41(C), pages 1-16.
    22. Chen, Gongmeng & Firth, Michael & Xu, Liping, 2009. "Does the type of ownership control matter? Evidence from China's listed companies," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 33(1), pages 171-181, January.
    23. Marco Becht & Colin Mayer, 2002. "Corporate control in Europe," Revue d'économie politique, Dalloz, vol. 112(4), pages 471-498.
    24. Jensen, Michael C. & Meckling, William H., 1976. "Theory of the firm: Managerial behavior, agency costs and ownership structure," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 3(4), pages 305-360, October.
    25. Naisyin Wang, 2003. "Marginal nonparametric kernel regression accounting for within-subject correlation," Biometrika, Biometrika Trust, vol. 90(1), pages 43-52, March.
    26. Henderson, Daniel J. & Carroll, Raymond J. & Li, Qi, 2008. "Nonparametric estimation and testing of fixed effects panel data models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 144(1), pages 257-275, May.
    27. Bennedsen, Morten & Nielsen, Kasper Meisner, 2010. "Incentive and entrenchment effects in European ownership," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 34(9), pages 2212-2229, September.
    28. Randall K. Morck, 2000. "Concentrated Corporate Ownership," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number morc00-1, July.
    29. Rafael La Porta & Florencio Lopez‐De‐Silanes & Andrei Shleifer, 1999. "Corporate Ownership Around the World," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 54(2), pages 471-517, April.
    30. Randall Morck & David Stangeland & Bernard Yeung, 2000. "Inherited Wealth, Corporate Control, and Economic Growth The Canadian Disease?," NBER Chapters, in: Concentrated Corporate Ownership, pages 319-372, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    31. Jeffrey Zwiebel, 1995. "Block Investment and Partial Benefits of Corporate Control," The Review of Economic Studies, Review of Economic Studies Ltd, vol. 62(2), pages 161-185.
    32. Li, Qi, 1996. "On the root-N-consistent semiparametric estimation of partially linear models," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 51(3), pages 277-285, June.
    33. Morck, Randall & Shleifer, Andrei & Vishny, Robert W., 1988. "Management ownership and market valuation : An empirical analysis," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 20(1-2), pages 293-315, January.
    34. Morck, Randall & Shleifer, Andrei & Vishny, Robert W., 1988. "Management ownership and market valuation," Scholarly Articles 29407535, Harvard University Department of Economics.
    35. Faccio, Mara & Lang, Larry H. P., 2002. "The ultimate ownership of Western European corporations," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 65(3), pages 365-395, September.
    36. Fisher, Franklin M & McGowan, John J, 1983. "On the Misuse of Accounting Rates of Return to Infer Monopoly Profits," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 73(1), pages 82-97, March.
    37. Naisyin Wang & Raymond J. Carroll & Xihong Lin, 2005. "Efficient Semiparametric Marginal Estimation for Longitudinal/Clustered Data," Journal of the American Statistical Association, American Statistical Association, vol. 100, pages 147-157, March.
    38. Mike Burkart & Fausto Panunzi & Andrei Shleifer, 2003. "Family Firms," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 58(5), pages 2167-2202, October.
    39. Davies, J.R. & Hillier, David & McColgan, Patrick, 2005. "Ownership structure, managerial behavior and corporate value," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 11(4), pages 645-660, September.
    40. Clifford G. Holderness, 2009. "The Myth of Diffuse Ownership in the United States," The Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 22(4), pages 1377-1408, April.
    41. Jayati Sarkar & Subrata Sarkar, 2000. "Large Shareholder Activism in Corporate Governance in Developing Countries: Evidence from India," International Review of Finance, International Review of Finance Ltd., vol. 1(3), pages 161-194, September.
    42. Ronald C. Anderson & David M. Reeb, 2003. "Founding-Family Ownership and Firm Performance: Evidence from the S&P 500," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 58(3), pages 1301-1327, June.
    43. Gorton, Gary & Schmid, Frank A., 2000. "Universal banking and the performance of German firms," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 58(1-2), pages 29-80.
    44. Kamhon Kan & Myoung‐Jae Lee, 2012. "Lose weight for a raise only if overweight: Marginal integration for semi‐linear panel models," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 27(4), pages 666-685, June.
    45. Li, Qi & Stengos, Thanasis, 1996. "Semiparametric estimation of partially linear panel data models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 71(1-2), pages 389-397.
    46. Cynthia A. Montgomery & Birger Wernerfelt, 1988. "Diversification, Ricardian Rents, and Tobin's q," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 19(4), pages 623-632, Winter.
    47. Sheng-Syan Chen & Kim Wai Ho & Cheng-Few Lee & Keshab Shrestha, 2004. "Nonlinear Models in Corporate Finance Research: Review, Critique, and Extensions," Review of Quantitative Finance and Accounting, Springer, vol. 22(2), pages 141-169, March.
    48. Demsetz, Harold, 1983. "The Structure of Ownership and the Theory of the Firm," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 26(2), pages 375-390, June.
    49. McConnell, John J. & Servaes, Henri, 1990. "Additional evidence on equity ownership and corporate value," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 27(2), pages 595-612, October.
    50. Claessens, Stijn & Djankov, Simeon & Lang, Larry H. P., 2000. "The separation of ownership and control in East Asian Corporations," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 58(1-2), pages 81-112.
    51. Cui, Huimin & Mak, Y. T., 2002. "The relationship between managerial ownership and firm performance in high R&D firms," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 8(4), pages 313-336, October.
    52. Maury, Benjamin, 2006. "Family ownership and firm performance: Empirical evidence from Western European corporations," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 12(2), pages 321-341, January.
    53. Holderness, Clifford G. & Sheehan, Dennis P., 1988. "The role of majority shareholders in publicly held corporations : An exploratory analysis," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 20(1-2), pages 317-346, January.
    54. Denis, Diane K. & McConnell, John J., 2003. "International Corporate Governance," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 38(1), pages 1-36, March.
    55. Su, Liangjun & Ullah, Aman, 2006. "Profile likelihood estimation of partially linear panel data models with fixed effects," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 92(1), pages 75-81, July.
    56. Raphael Amit & Joshua Livnat, 1989. "Efficient Corporate Diversification: Methods and Implications," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 35(7), pages 879-897, July.
    57. King, Michael R. & Santor, Eric, 2008. "Family values: Ownership structure, performance and capital structure of Canadian firms," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 32(11), pages 2423-2432, November.
    58. Demsetz, Harold & Lehn, Kenneth, 1985. "The Structure of Corporate Ownership: Causes and Consequences," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 93(6), pages 1155-1177, December.
    59. Marco Becht & Fabrizio Barca, 2001. "The control of corporate Europe," ULB Institutional Repository 2013/13302, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
    60. Short, Helen & Keasey, Kevin, 1999. "Managerial ownership and the performance of firms: Evidence from the UK," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 5(1), pages 79-101, March.
    61. Ronald C. Anderson & David M. Reeb, 2003. "Founding‐Family Ownership and Firm Performance: Evidence from the S&P 500," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 58(3), pages 1301-1328, June.
    62. Benston, George J, 1985. "The Validity of Profits-Structure Studies with Particular Reference to the FTC's Line of Business Data," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 75(1), pages 37-67, March.
    63. Morck, Randall K. (ed.), 2000. "Concentrated Corporate Ownership," National Bureau of Economic Research Books, University of Chicago Press, edition 1, number 9780226536781, November.
    64. Xu, Xiaonian & Wang, Yan, 1999. "Ownership structure and corporate governance in Chinese stock companies," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 10(1), pages 75-98.
    65. Lin X. & Carroll R. J., 2001. "Semiparametric Regression for Clustered Data Using Generalized Estimating Equations," Journal of the American Statistical Association, American Statistical Association, vol. 96, pages 1045-1056, September.
    66. Morten Bennedsen & Kasper Meisner Nielsen & Francisco Perez-Gonzalez & Daniel Wolfenzon, 2007. "Inside the Family Firm: The Role of Families in Succession Decisions and Performance," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, President and Fellows of Harvard College, vol. 122(2), pages 647-691.
    67. Dennis Leech, 2002. "Shareholder Voting Power and Ownership Control of Companies," Homo Oeconomicus, Institute of SocioEconomics, vol. 19, pages 345-371.
    68. Xihong Lin & Raymond J. Carroll, 2006. "Semiparametric estimation in general repeated measures problems," Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Series B, Royal Statistical Society, vol. 68(1), pages 69-88, February.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Zouaoui, Haykel & Mazioud, Manel & Ellouz, Nidhal Ziedi, 2018. "A semi-parametric panel data analysis on financial development-economic volatility nexus in developing countries," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 172(C), pages 50-55.
    2. Maria Aluchna & Tomasz Kuszewski, 2020. "Does Corporate Governance Compliance Increase Company Value? Evidence from the Best Practice of the Board," JRFM, MDPI, vol. 13(10), pages 1-21, October.
    3. Sami Ben Jabeur & Rabi Belhaj Hassine & Salma Mefteh‐Wali, 2021. "Firm financial performance during the financial crisis: A French case study," International Journal of Finance & Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 26(2), pages 2800-2812, April.
    4. Inmaculada Aguiar-Diaz & María Victoria Ruiz-Mallorquí & Lourdes Trujillo, 2020. "Ownership structure and financial performance of Spanish port service companies," Maritime Economics & Logistics, Palgrave Macmillan;International Association of Maritime Economists (IAME), vol. 22(4), pages 674-698, December.
    5. Maria Aluchna & Tomasz Kuszewski, 2021. "Do Financial Investors Mitigate Agency Problems? Evidence from an Emerging Market," European Research Studies Journal, European Research Studies Journal, vol. 0(2), pages 872-888.
    6. Gopalakrishnan, Balagopal & Mohapatra, Sanket, 2020. "Insolvency regimes and firms' default risk under economic uncertainty and shocks," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 91(C), pages 180-197.
    7. Florackis, Chris & Kanas, Angelos & Kostakis, Alexandros & Sainani, Sushil, 2020. "Idiosyncratic risk, risk-taking incentives and the relation between managerial ownership and firm value," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 283(2), pages 748-766.
    8. Joura, Essam & Xiao, Qin & Ullah, Subhan, 2021. "The impact of Say-on-Pay votes on firms' strategic policies: Insights from the Anglo-Saxon economy," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 73(C).
    9. González, Maximiliano & Guzmán, Alexander & Pablo, Eduardo & Trujillo, María-Andrea, 2019. "Is board turnover driven by performance in family firms?," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 48(C), pages 169-186.
    10. Taylan Mavruk & Conny Overland & Stefan Sjögren, 2020. "Keeping it real or keeping it simple? Ownership concentration measures compared," European Financial Management, European Financial Management Association, vol. 26(4), pages 958-1005, September.
    11. Qichang Xie & Yingkun Yan & Xu Wang, 2023. "Assessing the role of foreign direct investment in environmental sustainability: a spatial semiparametric panel approach," Economic Change and Restructuring, Springer, vol. 56(2), pages 1263-1295, April.
    12. Mohamad Nur Utomo & Sugeng Wahyudi & Harjum Muharam & Maximus Leonardo Taolin, 2018. "Strategy To Improve Firm Performance Through Operational Efficiency Commitment To Environmental Friendliness: Evidence From Indonesia," Organizations and Markets in Emerging Economies, Faculty of Economics, Vilnius University, vol. 9(1).
    13. Nakabayashi, Masaki, 2019. "Ownership structure and market efficiency," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 61(C), pages 189-212.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. San Martin-Reyna, J.M. & Duran-Encalada, Jorge A., 2012. "The relationship among family business, corporate governance and firm performance: Evidence from the Mexican stock exchange," Journal of Family Business Strategy, Elsevier, vol. 3(2), pages 106-117.
    2. González, Maximiliano & Guzmán, Alexander & Pombo, Carlos & Trujillo, María-Andrea, 2012. "Family firms and financial performance: The cost of growing," Emerging Markets Review, Elsevier, vol. 13(4), pages 626-649.
    3. Saito, Takuji, 2008. "Family firms and firm performance: Evidence from Japan," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 22(4), pages 620-646, December.
    4. Weiß, Christian, 2010. "The Ownership Concentration of Firms: Three Essays on the Determinants and Effects," EconStor Theses, ZBW - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, number 30247, March.
    5. Zeineb Barka & Taher Hamza, 2020. "The effect of large controlling shareholders on equity prices in France: monitoring or entrenchment?," Journal of Management & Governance, Springer;Accademia Italiana di Economia Aziendale (AIDEA), vol. 24(3), pages 769-798, September.
    6. Jameson, Melvin & Prevost, Andrew & Puthenpurackal, John, 2014. "Controlling shareholders, board structure, and firm performance: Evidence from India," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 27(C), pages 1-20.
    7. Pindado, Julio & Requejo, Ignacio & de la Torre, Chabela, 2014. "Family control, expropriation, and investor protection: A panel data analysis of Western European corporations," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 27(C), pages 58-74.
    8. repec:agr:journl:v:4(621):y:2019:i:4(621):p:93-110 is not listed on IDEAS
    9. Morck, Randall & Deniz Yavuz, M. & Yeung, Bernard, 2011. "Banking system control, capital allocation, and economy performance," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 100(2), pages 264-283, May.
    10. Sylvain Marsat & Yves Mard & Fabien Roux, 2014. "Ownership structure and corporate financial performance: evidence from France [Structure de l’actionnariat et performance financière de l’entreprise : le cas français]," Post-Print hal-02156607, HAL.
    11. Ducassy, Isabelle & Guyot, Alexis, 2017. "Complex ownership structures, corporate governance and firm performance: The French context," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 39(PA), pages 291-306.
    12. Pradiptarathi PANDA & Jinesh PANCHALI, 2019. "Corporate ownership structure and performance: An enquiry into India," Theoretical and Applied Economics, Asociatia Generala a Economistilor din Romania - AGER, vol. 0(4(621), W), pages 93-110, Winter.
    13. Arosa, Blanca & Iturralde, Txomin & Maseda, Amaia, 2010. "Ownership structure and firm performance in non-listed firms: Evidence from Spain," Journal of Family Business Strategy, Elsevier, vol. 1(2), pages 88-96, June.
    14. repec:dau:papers:123456789/5922 is not listed on IDEAS
    15. Malika Hamadi & Ronald W. Anderson, 2009. "Large powerful shareholders and cash holding," LSF Research Working Paper Series 09-04, Luxembourg School of Finance, University of Luxembourg.
    16. Villalonga, Belen & Amit, Raphael, 2006. "How do family ownership, control and management affect firm value?," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 80(2), pages 385-417, May.
    17. Bouzgarrou, Houssam & Navatte, Patrick, 2013. "Ownership structure and acquirers performance: Family vs. non-family firms," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 27(C), pages 123-134.
    18. Suveera Gill & Parmjit Kaur, 2015. "Family Involvement in Business and Financial Performance: A Panel Data Analysis," Vikalpa: The Journal for Decision Makers, , vol. 40(4), pages 395-420, December.
    19. Attiya Y. Javid & Robina Iqbal, 2010. "Corporate Governance in Pakistan: Corporate Valuation, Ownership and Financing," PIDE-Working Papers 2010:57, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics.
    20. Thomsen, Steen & Pedersen, Torben & Kvist, Hans Kurt, 2006. "Blockholder ownership: Effects on firm value in market and control based governance systems," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 12(2), pages 246-269, January.
    21. Goergen, Marc & Manjon, Miguel C. & Renneboog, Luc, 2008. "Recent developments in German corporate governance," International Review of Law and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 28(3), pages 175-193, September.
    22. Lionel Almeida, 2015. "Who are the controlling shareholders? Degree and seniority of control, and CEO pay monitoring," EconomiX Working Papers 2015-27, University of Paris Nanterre, EconomiX.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Family firms; Firm performance; Large shareholders; Ownership concentration; Semiparametric panel;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • C23 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Models with Panel Data; Spatio-temporal Models
    • G32 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - Financing Policy; Financial Risk and Risk Management; Capital and Ownership Structure; Value of Firms; Goodwill
    • C14 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric and Statistical Methods and Methodology: General - - - Semiparametric and Nonparametric Methods: General

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:cns:cnscwp:201502. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: CRENoS (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/crenoit.html .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service. RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.