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Who are the controlling shareholders? Degree and seniority of control, and CEO pay monitoring

Author

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  • Lionel Almeida

    (EconomiX - UPN - Université Paris Nanterre - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)

Abstract

Based on CEO pay monitoring in French listed companies, this study first searches for the relevant metric of controlling shareholdings. The equity share held by the largest shareholder directly or indirectly represented on the board of directors, plus shareholders acting in concert with it, is associated with effective control – while other blockholders, whether or not they sit on the board, and deviations from "one share-one vote", do not enhance monitoring. Second, a panel threshold regression (PTR) model allows to identify various regimes of control. Four regimes are found in the degree of control. A threshold at about 10% of equity separates out "non-controlled" from effectively-controlled firms; three regimes of effective control are then identified. They are termed as "influential" (from about 10% to one-third of equity), "dominant" (up to about 45%), and "majority" (over 45%) controls. Specifically, CEO pay packages provide evidence of entrenchment for dominant controlling shareholders. Then, this study introduces seniority of control as a second criterion for effective control. The PTR model allows to distinguish two regimes termed as "new" and "long-term" control: new controlling shareholders need about six to eight years to reduce asymmetries of information and no longer rely on alternative monitoring devices. The study lastly discusses the relevance of discontinuous threshold effects compared to some continuous specifications found in the literature on ownership.

Suggested Citation

  • Lionel Almeida, 2015. "Who are the controlling shareholders? Degree and seniority of control, and CEO pay monitoring," Working Papers hal-02102813, HAL.
  • Handle: RePEc:hal:wpaper:hal-02102813
    Note: View the original document on HAL open archive server: https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02102813
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Lionel Almeida, 2016. "The effects of CEO pay transparency in France. Benchmarking, `catching-up', and outsider scrutiny," Post-Print hal-02474780, HAL.

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    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • G32 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - Financing Policy; Financial Risk and Risk Management; Capital and Ownership Structure; Value of Firms; Goodwill
    • G34 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - Mergers; Acquisitions; Restructuring; Corporate Governance
    • L22 - Industrial Organization - - Firm Objectives, Organization, and Behavior - - - Firm Organization and Market Structure

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