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Ownership structure and firm performance in non-listed firms: Evidence from Spain

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  • Arosa, Blanca
  • Iturralde, Txomin
  • Maseda, Amaia

Abstract

This study provides new evidence regarding the way in which ownership concentration influences non-listed firm performance focusing on the conflict between majority and minority shareholders, and differentiating between the behavior of family and non-family firms, using data from 586 non-listed Spanish firms. In first-generation family firms our research shows that agency theory can be used to explain the role of ownership concentration in balancing conflicts between shareholder groups. A greater concentration of firm ownership in the first generation may bring the monitoring and expropriation hypotheses into play, whereas firms in which subsequent generations have joined may show a greater spread of ownership. In first generation family firms, the classic owner-manager conflict is mitigated due to the large shareholder's greater incentives to monitor the manager. However, a second type of conflict appears. The large shareholder may use its controlling position in the firm to extract private benefits at the expense of the small shareholders. The empirical evidence shows that for family firms, the relationship between ownership concentration and firm performance differs depending on which generation of the family manages the firms.

Suggested Citation

  • Arosa, Blanca & Iturralde, Txomin & Maseda, Amaia, 2010. "Ownership structure and firm performance in non-listed firms: Evidence from Spain," Journal of Family Business Strategy, Elsevier, vol. 1(2), pages 88-96, June.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:fambus:v:1:y:2010:i:2:p:88-96
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    Cited by:

    1. Juan Manuel San Martin-Reyna & Jorge A. Duran-Encalada, 2015. "Effects of Family Ownership, Debt and Board Composition on Mexican Firms Performance," International Journal of Financial Studies, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 3(1), pages 1-19, March.
    2. Francesco Aiello & Fernanda Ricotta, 2014. "Firm heterogeneity in productivity across Europe. What explains what?," ERSA conference papers ersa14p808, European Regional Science Association.
    3. Block, Joern H. & Jaskiewicz, Peter & Miller, Danny, 2011. "Ownership versus management effects on performance in family and founder companies: A Bayesian reconciliation," Journal of Family Business Strategy, Elsevier, vol. 2(4), pages 232-245.
    4. Basco, Rodrigo & Pérez Rodríguez, María José, 2011. "Ideal types of family business management: Horizontal fit between family and business decisions and the relationship with family business performance," Journal of Family Business Strategy, Elsevier, vol. 2(3), pages 151-165.
    5. Audretsch, David B. & Hülsbeck, Marcel & Lehmann, Erik E., 2013. "Families as active monitors of firm performance," Journal of Family Business Strategy, Elsevier, vol. 4(2), pages 118-130.
    6. repec:krk:eberjl:v:5:y:2017:i:1:p:169-185 is not listed on IDEAS
    7. Miralles-Marcelo, José Luis & Miralles-Quirós, Maria del Mar & Lisboa, Inês, 2014. "The impact of family control on firm performance: Evidence from Portugal and Spain," Journal of Family Business Strategy, Elsevier, vol. 5(2), pages 156-168.
    8. Sciascia, Salvatore & Mazzola, Pietro & Kellermanns, Franz W., 2014. "Family management and profitability in private family-owned firms: Introducing generational stage and the socioemotional wealth perspective," Journal of Family Business Strategy, Elsevier, vol. 5(2), pages 131-137.
    9. Tappeiner, Florian & Howorth, Carole & Achleitner, Ann-Kristin & Schraml, Stephanie, 2012. "Demand for private equity minority investments: A study of large family firms," Journal of Family Business Strategy, Elsevier, vol. 3(1), pages 38-51.
    10. Basco, Rodrigo, 2013. "The family's effect on family firm performance: A model testing the demographic and essence approaches," Journal of Family Business Strategy, Elsevier, vol. 4(1), pages 42-66.
    11. Goel, Sanjay & Mazzola, Pietro & Phan, Phillip H. & Pieper, Torsten M. & Zachary, Ramona K., 2012. "Strategy, ownership, governance, and socio-psychological perspectives on family businesses from around the world," Journal of Family Business Strategy, Elsevier, vol. 3(2), pages 54-65.
    12. Blanco-Mazagatos, Virginia & de Quevedo-Puente, Esther & Delgado-García, Juan Bautista, 2016. "How agency conflict between family managers and family owners affects performance in wholly family-owned firms: A generational perspective," Journal of Family Business Strategy, Elsevier, vol. 7(3), pages 167-177.
    13. Lidia Mannarino & Valeria Pupo & Fernanda Ricotta, 2016. "Family Firms And Productivity: The Role Of Institutional Quality," Working Papers 201605, Università della Calabria, Dipartimento di Economia, Statistica e Finanza "Giovanni Anania" - DESF.
    14. Merino, Fernando & Monreal-Pérez, Joaquín & Sánchez-Marín, Gregorio, 2012. "Family firm internationalization: Influence of familiness on the Spanish firm export activity," Kiel Working Papers 1770, Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW).
    15. repec:spr:intemj:v:14:y:2018:i:1:d:10.1007_s11365-017-0455-6 is not listed on IDEAS
    16. Santiago Lago-Peñas & Mercedes Mareque Álvarez-Santullano & Elena Rivo-López & Mónica Villanueva-Villar, 2017. "Determining factors for audit opinion in private family and non-family firms. Evidence from Spain," Working Papers. Collection C: Family business 1701, Universidade de Vigo, GEN - Governance and Economics research Network.
    17. San Martin-Reyna, J.M. & Duran-Encalada, Jorge A., 2012. "The relationship among family business, corporate governance and firm performance: Evidence from the Mexican stock exchange," Journal of Family Business Strategy, Elsevier, vol. 3(2), pages 106-117.
    18. Barros, Ismael & Hernangómez, Juan & Martin-Cruz, Natalia, 2016. "A theoretical model of strategic management of family firms. A dynamic capabilities approach," Journal of Family Business Strategy, Elsevier, vol. 7(3), pages 149-159.
    19. Mazzi, Chiara, 2011. "Family business and financial performance: Current state of knowledge and future research challenges," Journal of Family Business Strategy, Elsevier, vol. 2(3), pages 166-181.

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