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Modeling Fluctuations in the Global Demand for Commodities

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  • Lutz Kilian
  • Xiaoqing Zhou

Abstract

It is widely understood that the real price of globally traded commodities is determined by the forces of demand and supply. One of the main determinants of the real price of commodities is shifts in the demand for commodities associated with unexpected fluctuations in global real economic activity. There have been numerous proposals for quantifying global real economic activity. We discuss which criteria a measure of global real activity must satisfy to be useful for modeling industrial commodity prices, we examine which of the many alternative measures in the literature are most suitable for applied work, and we explain why some popular measures are inappropriate for modeling commodity prices. Given these insights, we reexamine in detail the question of whether global real economic activity has declined since 2011 and by how much. Drawing on a range of new evidence, we show that the global commodity price boom of the 2000s appears to have been largely transitory. Our analysis has important implications for the design of structural models of commodity markets, for the analysis of the transmission of commodity price shocks to commodity-importing and exporting economies, and for commodity price forecasting.

Suggested Citation

  • Lutz Kilian & Xiaoqing Zhou, 2017. "Modeling Fluctuations in the Global Demand for Commodities," CESifo Working Paper Series 6749, CESifo Group Munich.
  • Handle: RePEc:ces:ceswps:_6749
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
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    2. Lutz Kilian, 2017. "The Impact of the Fracking Boom on Arab Oil Producers," The Energy Journal, International Association for Energy Economics, vol. 0(Number 6).
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    29. Ready, Robert & Roussanov, Nikolai & Ward, Colin, 2017. "After the tide: Commodity currencies and global trade," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 85(C), pages 69-86.
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    Cited by:

    1. repec:ecb:ecbrbu:2018:0051: is not listed on IDEAS
    2. Kilian, Lutz, 2019. "Measuring global real economic activity: Do recent critiques hold up to scrutiny?," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 178(C), pages 106-110.
    3. repec:eee:jocoma:v:14:y:2019:i:c:p:66-75 is not listed on IDEAS
    4. Lutz Kilian & Zhou Xiaoqing, 2019. "Oil Prices, Exchange Rates and Interest Rates," CESifo Working Paper Series 7484, CESifo Group Munich.
    5. Anthony Garratt & Shaun P. Vahey & Yunyi Zhang, 2019. "Real‐time forecast combinations for the oil price," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 34(3), pages 456-462, April.
    6. Raghavan, Mala, 2019. "An analysis of the global oil market using SVARMA models," Working Papers 2019-01, University of Tasmania, Tasmanian School of Business and Economics.
    7. Christiane Baumeister & James D. Hamilton, 2019. "Structural Interpretation of Vector Autoregressions with Incomplete Identification: Revisiting the Role of Oil Supply and Demand Shocks," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 109(5), pages 1873-1910, May.
    8. Jamie L. Cross & Chenghan Hou & Bao H. Nguyen, 2018. "On the China factor in international oil markets: A regime switching approach," Working Papers No 11/2018, Centre for Applied Macro- and Petroleum economics (CAMP), BI Norwegian Business School.
    9. Delle Chiaie, Simona & Ferrara, Laurent & Giannone, Domenico, 2018. "Common factors of commodity prices," Research Bulletin, European Central Bank, vol. 51.
    10. repec:eee:jimfin:v:90:y:2019:i:c:p:1-18 is not listed on IDEAS
    11. Kilian, Lutz & Zhou, Xiaoqing, 2018. "Structural Interpretation of Vector Autoregressions with Incomplete Information: Revisiting the Role of Oil Supply and Demand Shocks: Comment," CEPR Discussion Papers 13068, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    12. Daniele Valenti, 2018. "Modelling the Global Price of Oil: Is there any Role for the Oil Futures-spot Spread?," Working Papers 2018.06, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei.
    13. repec:eco:journ2:2019-03-9 is not listed on IDEAS
    14. Lutz Kilian & Xiaoqing Zhou, 2018. "Structural Interpretation of Vector Autoregressions with Incomplete Identification: Revisiting the Role of Oil Supply and Demand Shocks: Comment," CESifo Working Paper Series 7166, CESifo Group Munich.
    15. Reinhard Ellwanger, 2019. "A Structural Model of the Global Oil Market," Staff Analytical Notes 2019-17, Bank of Canada.
    16. Alfred Haug & Syed Basher & Perry Sadorsky, 2016. "The impact of oil price shocks on exchange rates: A non-linear smooth-transition approach," EcoMod2016 9226, EcoMod.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    commodity market; demand; real economic activity; global economy; oil price; international business; cycle; leading indicators;

    JEL classification:

    • F44 - International Economics - - Macroeconomic Aspects of International Trade and Finance - - - International Business Cycles
    • Q11 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Agriculture - - - Aggregate Supply and Demand Analysis; Prices
    • Q31 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Nonrenewable Resources and Conservation - - - Demand and Supply; Prices
    • Q41 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Energy - - - Demand and Supply; Prices
    • Q43 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Energy - - - Energy and the Macroeconomy

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