IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/ays/ispwps/paper1501.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Labor Market Flexibility and FDI Flows: Evidence from Oil-Rich GCC and Middle Income Countries

Author

Listed:
  • Wasseem Mina

    () (Department of Economics and Finance, College of Business and Economics, United Arab Emirates University)

  • Louis Jaeck

    () (Department of Economics and Finance, College of Business and Economics, United Arab Emirates University)

Abstract

In this paper we empirically examine the impact of labor market flexibility on FDI flows to oil-rich GCC and compare it to middle income countries in 2006-2011. We account for potential endogeneity and nonstationarity and adopt system GMM and IV estimation methodologies. Our findings show that in middle income countries overall flexibility increases FDI flows under both system GMM and IV methodologies. In GCC countries overall LMF decreases FDI flows under system GMM methodology. Results also show a positive “GCC region” influence outweighing the negative flexibility influence. Growth potential and infrastructure development matter for both GCC and middle income countries.

Suggested Citation

  • Wasseem Mina & Louis Jaeck, 2015. "Labor Market Flexibility and FDI Flows: Evidence from Oil-Rich GCC and Middle Income Countries," International Center for Public Policy Working Paper Series, at AYSPS, GSU paper1501, International Center for Public Policy, Andrew Young School of Policy Studies, Georgia State University.
  • Handle: RePEc:ays:ispwps:paper1501
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://icepp.gsu.edu/files/2015/07/ispwp1501.pdf
    Download Restriction: no

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Wasseem Mina, 2014. "But Most of All We Love Each Other: Does Social Cohesion Pay off? Evidence from FDI Flows to Middle Income Countries," International Center for Public Policy Working Paper Series, at AYSPS, GSU paper1424, International Center for Public Policy, Andrew Young School of Policy Studies, Georgia State University.
    2. Devereux, Michael P. & Griffith, Rachel, 1998. "Taxes and the location of production: evidence from a panel of US multinationals," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 68(3), pages 335-367, June.
    3. Theodore H. Moran, 1998. "Foreign Direct Investment and Development: The New Policy Agenda for Developing Countries and Economies in Transition," Peterson Institute Press: All Books, Peterson Institute for International Economics, number 53.
    4. Asiedu, Elizabeth, 2002. "On the Determinants of Foreign Direct Investment to Developing Countries: Is Africa Different?," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 30(1), pages 107-119, January.
    5. Christian Daude & Ernesto Stein, 2007. "The Quality Of Institutions And Foreign Direct Investment," Economics and Politics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 19(3), pages 317-344, November.
    6. Chakrabarti, Avik, 2001. "The Determinants of Foreign Direct Investment: Sensitivity Analyses of Cross-Country Regressions," Kyklos, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 54(1), pages 89-113.
    7. Ang, James B., 2008. "Determinants of foreign direct investment in Malaysia," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 30(1), pages 185-189.
    8. repec:kap:iaecre:v:14:y:2008:i:1:p:90-100 is not listed on IDEAS
    9. Durham, J.B.J. Benson, 2004. "Absorptive capacity and the effects of foreign direct investment and equity foreign portfolio investment on economic growth," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 48(2), pages 285-306, April.
    10. Busse, Matthias & Hefeker, Carsten, 2007. "Political risk, institutions and foreign direct investment," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 23(2), pages 397-415, June.
    11. Markus Leibrecht & Johann Scharler, 2009. "How important is employment protection legislation for Foreign Direct Investment flows in Central and Eastern European countries?," The Economics of Transition, The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, vol. 17(2), pages 275-295, April.
    12. Du, Julan & Lu, Yi & Tao, Zhigang, 2008. "Economic institutions and FDI location choice: Evidence from US multinationals in China," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 36(3), pages 412-429, September.
    13. Hazel Parcon, 2008. "Labor Market Flexibility as a Determinant of FDI Inflows," Working Papers 200807, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Department of Economics.
    14. Wolfgang Keller & Arik Levinson, 2002. "Pollution Abatement Costs and Foreign Direct Investment Inflows to U.S. States," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 84(4), pages 691-703, November.
    15. T.K. Jayaraman & Baljeet Singh, 2007. "Foreign Direct Investment and Employment Creation in Pacific Island Countries: An Empirical Study of Fiji," Working Papers 3507, Asia-Pacific Research and Training Network on Trade (ARTNeT), an initiative of UNESCAP and IDRC, Canada..
    16. Arellano, Manuel & Bover, Olympia, 1995. "Another look at the instrumental variable estimation of error-components models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 68(1), pages 29-51, July.
    17. Alfaro, Laura & Chanda, Areendam & Kalemli-Ozcan, Sebnem & Sayek, Selin, 2004. "FDI and economic growth: the role of local financial markets," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 64(1), pages 89-112, October.
    18. Olney, William W., 2013. "A race to the bottom? Employment protection and foreign direct investment," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 91(2), pages 191-203.
    19. Cheng, Leonard K. & Kwan, Yum K., 2000. "What are the determinants of the location of foreign direct investment? The Chinese experience," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 51(2), pages 379-400, August.
    20. Beata Smarzynska Javorcik & Mariana Spatareanu, 2005. "Do Foreign Investors Care about Labor Market Regulations?," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer;Institut für Weltwirtschaft (Kiel Institute for the World Economy), vol. 141(3), pages 375-403, October.
    21. David Roodman, 2009. "How to do xtabond2: An introduction to difference and system GMM in Stata," Stata Journal, StataCorp LP, vol. 9(1), pages 86-136, March.
    22. Shang-Jin Wei, 2000. "Local Corruption and Global Capital Flows," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 31(2), pages 303-354.
    23. Agbloyor, Elikplimi Komla & Abor, Joshua & Adjasi, Charles Komla Delali & Yawson, Alfred, 2013. "Exploring the causality links between financial markets and foreign direct investment in Africa," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 28(C), pages 118-134.
    24. Dupasquier, Chantal & Osakwe, Patrick N., 2006. "Foreign direct investment in Africa: Performance, challenges, and responsibilities," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 17(2), pages 241-260, April.
    25. Dinga, Marián & Münich, Daniel, 2010. "The impact of territorially concentrated FDI on local labor markets: Evidence from the Czech Republic," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 17(2), pages 354-367, April.
    26. Culem, Claudy G., 1988. "The locational determinants of direct investments among industrialized countries," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 32(4), pages 885-904, April.
    27. Sachs, J-D & Warner, A-M, 1995. "Natural Resource Abundance and Economic Growth," Papers 517a, Harvard - Institute for International Development.
    28. Smarzynska Javorcik, Beata, 2004. "The composition of foreign direct investment and protection of intellectual property rights: Evidence from transition economies," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 48(1), pages 39-62, February.
    29. Mina, Wasseem, 2009. "External commitment mechanisms, institutions, and FDI in GCC countries," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 19(2), pages 371-386, April.
    30. Halvor Mehlum & Karl Moene & Ragnar Torvik, 2006. "Cursed by Resources or Institutions?," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 29(8), pages 1117-1131, August.
    31. Zhang, Xiaoxi & Daly, Kevin, 2011. "The determinants of China's outward foreign direct investment," Emerging Markets Review, Elsevier, vol. 12(4), pages 389-398.
    32. Alfaro, Laura & Chanda, Areendam & Kalemli-Ozcan, Sebnem & Sayek, Selin, 2010. "Does foreign direct investment promote growth? Exploring the role of financial markets on linkages," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 91(2), pages 242-256, March.
    33. Demekas, Dimitri G. & Horvath, Balazs & Ribakova, Elina & Wu, Yi, 2007. "Foreign direct investment in European transition economies--The role of policies," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 35(2), pages 369-386, June.
    34. Linda Y. Yueh, 2004. "Wage Reforms in China During the 1990s," Asian Economic Journal, East Asian Economic Association, vol. 18(2), pages 149-164, June.
    35. Jayaraman, Tiru K. & Singh, Baljeet, 2007. "Impact of Foreign Direct Investment on Employment in Pacifi c Island Countries: An Empirical Study of Fiji," Economia Internazionale / International Economics, Camera di Commercio Industria Artigianato Agricoltura di Genova, vol. 60(1), pages 57-74.
    36. Mina, Wasseem, 2007. "The location determinants of FDI in the GCC countries," Journal of Multinational Financial Management, Elsevier, vol. 17(4), pages 336-348, October.
    37. Wasseem MIchel Mina, 2010. "Institutional Reforms Debate and FDI Flows to MENA Region: Does One “Best” Fit All?," International Center for Public Policy Working Paper Series, at AYSPS, GSU paper1034, International Center for Public Policy, Andrew Young School of Policy Studies, Georgia State University.
    38. Kinda, Tidiane, 2010. "Investment Climate and FDI in Developing Countries: Firm-Level Evidence," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 38(4), pages 498-513, April.
    39. Ibrahim Elbadawi & Raimundo Soto, 2012. "Resource Rents, Political Institutions and Economic Growth," Working Papers 678, Economic Research Forum, revised 2012.
    40. Miao Wang & M. C. Sunny Wong, 2009. "Foreign Direct Investment And Economic Growth: The Growth Accounting Perspective," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 47(4), pages 701-710, October.
    41. Hines, James R, Jr, 1996. "Altered States: Taxes and the Location of Foreign Direct Investment in America," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 86(5), pages 1076-1094, December.
    42. Pantelis Pantelidis & Efthymios Nikolopoulos, 2008. "FDI Attractiveness in Greece," International Advances in Economic Research, Springer;International Atlantic Economic Society, vol. 14(1), pages 90-100, February.
    43. Blundell, Richard & Bond, Stephen, 1998. "Initial conditions and moment restrictions in dynamic panel data models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 87(1), pages 115-143, August.
    44. Kevin Honglin Zhang, 2001. "What Attracts Foreign Multinational Corporations To China?," Contemporary Economic Policy, Western Economic Association International, vol. 19(3), pages 336-346, July.
    45. Karimi, Mohammad Sharif & Yusop, Zulkornain, 2009. "FDI and Economic Growth in Malaysia," MPRA Paper 14999, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    46. Urata, Shujiro & Kawai, Hiroki, 2000. "The Determinants of the Location of Foreign Direct Investment by Japanese Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 15(2), pages 79-103, September.
    47. Schneider, Friedrich & Frey, Bruno S., 1985. "Economic and political determinants of foreign direct investment," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 13(2), pages 161-175, February.
    48. Mollick Andre Varella & Ramos-Duran Rene & Silva-Ochoa Esteban, 2006. "Infrastructure and FDI Inflows into Mexico: A Panel Data Approach," Global Economy Journal, De Gruyter, vol. 6(1), pages 1-27, February.
    49. Hubert Janicki & Phanindra Wunnava, 2004. "Determinants of foreign direct investment: empirical evidence from EU accession candidates," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 36(5), pages 505-509.
    50. Chee-Keong Choong, 2012. "Does domestic financial development enhance the linkages between foreign direct investment and economic growth?," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 42(3), pages 819-834, June.
    51. Bellak, Christian & Leibrecht, Markus & Riedl, Aleksandra, 2008. "Labour costs and FDI flows into Central and Eastern European Countries: A survey of the literature and empirical evidence," Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, Elsevier, vol. 19(1), pages 17-37, March.
    52. W. A. Naude & W. F. Krugell, 2007. "Investigating geography and institutions as determinants of foreign direct investment in Africa using panel data," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 39(10), pages 1223-1233.
    53. Anil Mishra & Kevin Daly, 2007. "Effect of quality of institutions on outward foreign direct investment," The Journal of International Trade & Economic Development, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 16(2), pages 231-244.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • F2 - International Economics - - International Factor Movements and International Business
    • F21 - International Economics - - International Factor Movements and International Business - - - International Investment; Long-Term Capital Movements
    • J3 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs
    • J32 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs - - - Nonwage Labor Costs and Benefits; Retirement Plans; Private Pensions
    • J38 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs - - - Public Policy
    • J5 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Labor-Management Relations, Trade Unions, and Collective Bargaining
    • J53 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Labor-Management Relations, Trade Unions, and Collective Bargaining - - - Labor-Management Relations; Industrial Jurisprudence
    • J58 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Labor-Management Relations, Trade Unions, and Collective Bargaining - - - Public Policy
    • J6 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Mobility, Unemployment, Vacancies, and Immigrant Workers
    • J65 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Mobility, Unemployment, Vacancies, and Immigrant Workers - - - Unemployment Insurance; Severance Pay; Plant Closings
    • J68 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Mobility, Unemployment, Vacancies, and Immigrant Workers - - - Public Policy

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:ays:ispwps:paper1501. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Paul Benson). General contact details of provider: http://aysps.gsu.edu/isp/index.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.