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External commitment mechanisms, institutions, and FDI in GCC countries


  • Mina, Wasseem


The purpose of this paper is to empirically examine the influence of bilateral investment treaties and domestic institutions on foreign direct investment (FDI) in the GCC countries. Using panel data for the period 1984-2002 and instrumental variables estimation methodology, the paper finds that bilateral investment treaties (BITs) contracted with OECD and upper middle-income countries have a surprisingly negative influence and seem to be prevailed by the significantly positive influence of domestic institutions on FDI. BITs contracted with high-income non-OECD countries have a positive influence and prevail domestic institutions. The results have important institutional reform implications for GCC economic diversification efforts.

Suggested Citation

  • Mina, Wasseem, 2009. "External commitment mechanisms, institutions, and FDI in GCC countries," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 19(2), pages 371-386, April.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:intfin:v:19:y:2009:i:2:p:371-386

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Neumayer, Eric & Spess, Laura, 2005. "Do bilateral investment treaties increase foreign direct investment to developing countries?," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 33(10), pages 1567-1585, October.
    2. Mina, Wasseem, 2007. "The location determinants of FDI in the GCC countries," Journal of Multinational Financial Management, Elsevier, vol. 17(4), pages 336-348, October.
    3. Shang-Jin Wei, 2000. "How Taxing is Corruption on International Investors?," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 82(1), pages 1-11, February.
    4. Egger, Peter & Pfaffermayr, Michael, 2004. "The impact of bilateral investment treaties on foreign direct investment," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 32(4), pages 788-804, December.
    5. Christian Daude & Ernesto Stein, 2007. "The Quality Of Institutions And Foreign Direct Investment," Economics and Politics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 19(3), pages 317-344, November.
    6. Wasseem, Mina, 2007. "Are the GCC FDI Location Determinants Favorable?," Economics Discussion Papers 2007-23, Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW).
    7. Ginsburg, Tom, 2005. "International Substitutes for Domestic Institutions: Bilateral Investment Treaties and Governance," International Review of Law and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 25(1), pages 107-123, March.
    8. Anil Mishra & Kevin Daly, 2007. "Effect of quality of institutions on outward foreign direct investment," The Journal of International Trade & Economic Development, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 16(2), pages 231-244.
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    Cited by:

    1. Galego Aurora & Caetano José Manuel, 2012. "Institutional and Economic Determinants of FDI: A Comparison between the European Union and the MENA Region," Review of Middle East Economics and Finance, De Gruyter, vol. 8(1), pages 1-23, August.
    2. Mina, Wasseem, 2015. "Political risk guarantees and capital flows: The role of bilateral investment treaties," Economics - The Open-Access, Open-Assessment E-Journal, Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW), vol. 9, pages 1-38.
    3. Mina, Wasseem & Jaeck, Louis, 2015. "Labor Market Flexibility and FDI Flows: Evidence from Oil-Rich GCC and Middle Income Countries," MPRA Paper 62652, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    4. Wasseem Mina, 2014. "United Arab Emirates FDI Outlook," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 37(12), pages 1716-1730, December.
    5. Mina, Wasseem, 2012. "Beyond FDI: The Influence of Bilateral Investment Treaties on Debt," MPRA Paper 51920, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    6. repec:spr:manint:v:51:y:2011:i:1:d:10.1007_s11575-010-0062-z is not listed on IDEAS
    7. Wasseem MIchel Mina, 2010. "Institutional Reforms Debate and FDI Flows to MENA Region: Does One “Best” Fit All?," International Center for Public Policy Working Paper Series, at AYSPS, GSU paper1034, International Center for Public Policy, Andrew Young School of Policy Studies, Georgia State University.
    8. Mina, Wasseem Michel, 2012. "The Institutional Reforms Debate and FDI Flows to the MENA Region: The “Best” Ensemble," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 40(9), pages 1798-1809.


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