Quality Standards for Food Products - A Particular Burden for Small Producers in Developing Countries?
This paper develops an analytical framework which structures the problem of whether, how and to what extent small producers in developing countries are disadvantaged by the increasing prevalence of food quality standards. Based on a literature review, the empirical evidence is structured and research gaps are identified. The paper finds that small and medium producers rarely comply without support from downstream actors. In case of well-educated and relatively wealthy farmers, forward integration is also found. No empirical support exists for the intuitively appealing hypothesis of a lower cost of compliance per unit of output for large producers. Zusammenfassung In diesem Papier wird ein Analyserahmen entwickelt, um die Möglichkeit und das Ausmaß der Benachteiligung von Kleinlandwirten in Entwicklungsländern durch die zunehmende Verbreitung von Qualitätsstandards für Produkte der Agrar- und Ernährungsindustrie zu strukturieren. In einer Literaturübersicht werden die Ergebnisse empirischer Studien ausgewertet und Forschungslücken identifiziert. Es wird gezeigt, dass Kleinlandwirte aufwändige Prozessstandards selten ohne die Unterstützung von Unternehmen auf nachgelagerten Stufen der Wertschöpfungskette implementieren. Die einleuchtende und weit verbreitete Hypothese, dass die Cost of Compliance per Produkteinheit für große Produzenten niedriger als für kleine Produzenten seien, wurde bisher empirisch nicht bestätigt.
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