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Finance, inequality and inclusive education in Sub-Saharan Africa

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  • Simplice A. Asongu

    (Yaounde, Cameroon)

  • Joseph Nnanna

    (The Development Bank of Nigeria, Abuja, Nigeria)

  • Paul N. Acha-Anyi

    (Walter Sisulu University, South Africa)

Abstract

This research complements the extant literature by establishing inequality critical masses that should not be exceeded in order for financial access to promote gender parity inclusive education in Sub-Saharan Africa. The focus is on 42 countries in the sub-region and the data is for the period 2004-2014. The estimation approach is the Generalized Method of Moments. When remittances are involved in the conditioning information set, the Palma ratio should not exceed 6.000 in order for financial access to promote gender parity inclusive “primary and secondary education” and the Atkinson index should not exceed 0.695 in order for financial access to promote inclusive tertiary education. However, when the internet is involved in the conditioning information set, it is established that in order for financial access to promote inclusive primary and secondary education, the: (i) Gini coefficient should not exceed 0.571; (ii) Atkinson index should not be above 0.750 and (iii) Palma ratio should be maintained below 8.000. Irrespective of variable in the conditioning information set, what is apparent is that inequality decreases the incidence of financial access on inclusive education. Hence, a common policy measure is to reduce inequality in order to promote inclusive education using the financial access mechanism. Policy implications are discussed in the light of Sustainable Development Goals.

Suggested Citation

  • Simplice A. Asongu & Joseph Nnanna & Paul N. Acha-Anyi, 2020. "Finance, inequality and inclusive education in Sub-Saharan Africa," Working Papers of the African Governance and Development Institute. 20/050, African Governance and Development Institute..
  • Handle: RePEc:agd:wpaper:20/050
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    1. Asongu, Simplice A. & Nnanna, Joseph & Acha-Anyi, Paul N., 2020. "Inequality and gender economic inclusion: The moderating role of financial access in Sub-Saharan Africa," Economic Analysis and Policy, Elsevier, vol. 65(C), pages 173-185.
    2. Asongu, Simplice & Nnanna, Joseph & Acha-Anyi, Paul, 2020. "Inclusive Education for Inclusive Economic Participation: the Financial Access Channel," MPRA Paper 103151, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    3. Simplice A. Asongu & Nicholas M. Odhiambo, 2018. "ICT, Financial Access and Gender Inclusion in the Formal Economic Sector: Evidence from Africa," The African Finance Journal, Africagrowth Institute, vol. 20(2), pages 45-65.
    4. Simplice A. Asongu & Nicholas M. Odhiambo, 2020. "Finance, Governance and Inclusive Education in Sub-Saharan Africa," Working Papers of The Association for Promoting Women in Research and Development in Africa (ASPROWORDA). 20/007, The Association for Promoting Women in Research and Development in Africa (ASPROWORDA).
    5. Asongu, Simplice A. & Orim, Stella-Maris I. & Nting, Rexon T., 2019. "Inequality, information technology and inclusive education in sub-Saharan Africa," Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Elsevier, vol. 146(C), pages 380-389.
    6. Simplice A. Asongu, 2019. "Financial Access and Productivity Dynamics in Sub-Saharan Africa," Working Papers 19/052, European Xtramile Centre of African Studies (EXCAS).
    7. Asongu, Simplice A. & Odhiambo, Nicholas M., 2020. "Inequality and gender inclusion: Minimum ICT policy thresholds for promoting female employment in Sub-Saharan Africa," Telecommunications Policy, Elsevier, vol. 44(4).
    8. Asongu, Simplice A. & Odhiambo, Nicholas M., 2021. "Inequality, finance and renewable energy consumption in Sub-Saharan Africa," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 165(P1), pages 678-688.
    9. Asongu, Simplice & Odhiambo, Nicholas, 2020. "The role of Globalization in Modulating the Effect of Environmental Degradation on Inclusive Human Development," MPRA Paper 103143, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    10. Asongu, Simplice & Diop, Samba & Addis, Amsalu, 2020. "Governance, Inequality and Inclusive Education in Sub-Saharan Africa," MPRA Paper 107512, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    11. Simplice A. Asongu & Nicholas M. Odhiambo, 2020. "The Mobile Phone, Information Sharing, and Financial Sector Development in Africa: a Quantile Regression Approach," Journal of the Knowledge Economy, Springer;Portland International Center for Management of Engineering and Technology (PICMET), vol. 11(3), pages 1234-1269, September.
    12. Asongu, Simplice & Odhiambo, Nicholas, 2019. "Foreign Aid Complementarities and Inclusive Human Development in Africa," MPRA Paper 101086, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    13. Simplice A. Asongu & Nicholas M. Odhiambo, 2020. "Inequality thresholds, governance and gender economic inclusion in sub-Saharan Africa," International Review of Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 34(1), pages 94-114, January.
    14. Asongu, Simplice A. & Odhiambo, Nicholas M., 2020. "Foreign direct investment, information technology and economic growth dynamics in Sub-Saharan Africa," Telecommunications Policy, Elsevier, vol. 44(1).
    15. Simplice Asongu & Nicholas Odhiambo, 2019. "Inequality and the economic participation of women in sub-Saharan Africa: An empirical investigation," African Journal of Economic and Management Studies, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 11(2), pages 193-206, June.
    16. Simplice A. Asongu & Nicholas M. Odhiambo, 2019. "Enhancing ICT for insurance in Africa," Review of Development Finance Journal, Chartered Institute of Development Finance, vol. 9(2), pages 16-27.
    17. Meniago, Christelle & Asongu, Simplice A., 2018. "Revisiting the finance-inequality nexus in a panel of African countries," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 46(C), pages 399-419.
    18. Tchamyou, Vanessa S. & Erreygers, Guido & Cassimon, Danny, 2019. "Inequality, ICT and financial access in Africa," Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Elsevier, vol. 139(C), pages 169-184.
    19. Simplice A. Asongu & Nicholas M. Odhiambo, 2019. "How enhancing information and communication technology has affected inequality in Africa for sustainable development: An empirical investigation," Sustainable Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 27(4), pages 647-656, July.
    20. Simplice A. Asongu & Nicholas M. Odhiambo, 2020. "How enhancing gender inclusion affects inequality: Thresholds of complementary policies for sustainable development," Sustainable Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 28(1), pages 132-142, January.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Africa; Finance; Gender; Inclusive development;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • G20 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - General
    • I10 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Health - - - General
    • I32 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Welfare, Well-Being, and Poverty - - - Measurement and Analysis of Poverty
    • O40 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Growth and Aggregate Productivity - - - General
    • O55 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economywide Country Studies - - - Africa

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