IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/afe/journl/v20y2018i2p21-33.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Gender Inequality and Access to Microfinance: Evidence from Ghana

Author

Listed:
  • Theresa Mannah-Blankson

    (Department of Business and Management, Messiah College, USA)

Abstract

This paper draws on the qualitative and quantitative evidence from a dataset generated from a survey of 499 households in Ghana to explore the implications of access to microfinance for the gender asset gaps. Two sets of statistical analysis are undertaken. The first is a cross-sectional regression analysis that examines the importance of microfinance for intra-household gender wealth inequality. The second uses the Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition method to examine the gaps in wealth between female-headed and male-headed households. The results show that higher access to microfinance is associated with lower gender asset gaps within and across households. The evidence suggests that targeting credit to financially constrained households, and in particular to women, can contribute to reducing poverty and gender inequality

Suggested Citation

  • Theresa Mannah-Blankson, 2018. "Gender Inequality and Access to Microfinance: Evidence from Ghana," Journal of African Development, African Finance and Economic Association (AFEA), vol. 20(2), pages 21-33.
  • Handle: RePEc:afe:journl:v:20:y:2018:i:2:p:21-33
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.afeawpapers.org/RePEc/afe/afe-journl/wp-content/uploads/2018/05/JAD_20n2_Fall_2018_2.pdf
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. James C. Brau & Gary M. Woller, 2004. "Microfinance: A Comprehensive Review of the Existing Literature," Journal of Entrepreneurial Finance, Pepperdine University, Graziadio School of Business and Management, vol. 9(1), pages 1-28, Spring.
    2. Lapenu, Cécile & Zeller, Manfred, 2001. "Distribution, growth, and performance of microfinance institutions in Africa, Asia, and Latin America," FCND briefs 114, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
    3. Pascaline Dupas & Jonathan Robinson, 2013. "Savings Constraints and Microenterprise Development: Evidence from a Field Experiment in Kenya," American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, American Economic Association, vol. 5(1), pages 163-192, January.
    4. Maarten L. Buis, 2010. "Analyzing proportions," German Stata Users' Group Meetings 2010 04, Stata Users Group.
    5. Rahman, Aminur, 1999. "Micro-credit initiatives for equitable and sustainable development: Who pays?," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 27(1), pages 67-82, January.
    6. Frances R. Woolley & Judith Marshall, 1994. "Measuring Inequality Within The Household," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 40(4), pages 415-431, December.
    7. Hisako Kai & Shigeyuki Hamori, 2009. "Globalization, financial depth, and inequality in Sub-Saharan Africa," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 29(3), pages 2025-2037.
    8. Katherine Rankin, 2002. "Social Capital, Microfinance, and the Politics of Development," Feminist Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 8(1), pages 1-24.
    9. Goetz, Anne Marie & Gupta, Rina Sen, 1996. "Who takes the credit? Gender, power, and control over loan use in rural credit programs in Bangladesh," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 24(1), pages 45-63, January.
    10. Woolley, Frances R & Marshall, Judith, 1994. "Measuring Inequality within the Household," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 40(4), pages 415-431, December.
    11. Hermes, Niels & Lensink, Robert, 2011. "Microfinance: Its Impact, Outreach, and Sustainability," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 39(6), pages 875-881, June.
    12. Baydas, Mayada M. & Meyer, Richard L. & Aguilera-Alfred, Nelson, 1994. "Discrimination against women in formal credit markets: Reality or rhetoric?," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 22(7), pages 1073-1082, July.
    13. Ricardo Bebczuk & Francisco Haimovich, 2007. "MDGs and Microcredit: An Empirical Evaluation for Latin American Countries," CEDLAS, Working Papers 0048, CEDLAS, Universidad Nacional de La Plata.
    14. David Neumark, 1988. "Employers' Discriminatory Behavior and the Estimation of Wage Discrimination," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 23(3), pages 279-295.
    15. Mark M. Pitt & Shahidur R. Khandker & Omar Haider Chowdhury & Daniel L. Millimet, 2003. "Credit Programs for the Poor And the Health Status of Children in Rural Bangladesh," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 44(1), pages 87-118, February.
    16. Silvia Ferrari & Francisco Cribari-Neto, 2004. "Beta Regression for Modelling Rates and Proportions," Journal of Applied Statistics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 31(7), pages 799-815.
    17. Oaxaca, Ronald, 1973. "Male-Female Wage Differentials in Urban Labor Markets," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 14(3), pages 693-709, October.
    18. Marcella Corsi & Fabrizio Botti & Tommaso Rondinella & Giulia Zacchia, 2006. "Women and Microfinance in Mediterranean Countries," Development, Palgrave Macmillan;Society for International Deveopment, vol. 49(2), pages 67-74, June.
    19. Paul Mosley & Linda Mayoux, 1999. "Questioning virtuous spirals: micro-finance and women's empowerment in Africa," Journal of International Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 11(7), pages 957-984.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Simplice A. Asongu & Nicholas M. Odhiambo, 2019. "How enhancing information and communication technology has affected inequality in Africa for sustainable development: An empirical investigation," Sustainable Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 27(4), pages 647-656, July.
    2. Simplice A. Asongu & Nicholas M. Odhiambo, 2019. "Challenges of Doing Business in Africa: A Systematic Review," Journal of African Business, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 20(2), pages 259-268, April.
    3. Simplice A. Asongu & Nicholas M. Odhiambo, 2018. "ICT, Financial Access and Gender Inclusion in the Formal Economic Sector: Evidence from Africa," The African Finance Journal, Africagrowth Institute, vol. 20(2), pages 45-65.
    4. Asongu, Simplice & Odhiambo, Nicholas, 2019. "Foreign Aid Complementarities and Inclusive Human Development in Africa," MPRA Paper 101086, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    5. Vanessa S. Tchamyou & Simplice A. Asongu & Nicholas M. Odhiambo, 2019. "The Role of ICT in Modulating the Effect of Education and Lifelong Learning on Income Inequality and Economic Growth in Africa," African Development Review, African Development Bank, vol. 31(3), pages 261-274, September.
    6. Simplice A. Asongu & Nicholas M. Odhiambo, 2020. "How enhancing gender inclusion affects inequality: Thresholds of complementary policies for sustainable development," Sustainable Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 28(1), pages 132-142, January.
    7. Simplice A. Asongu & Nicholas M. Odhiambo, 2020. "Inequality thresholds, governance and gender economic inclusion in sub-Saharan Africa," International Review of Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 34(1), pages 94-114, January.
    8. Asongu, Simplice A. & Adegboye, Alex & Nnanna, Joseph, 2021. "Promoting female economic inclusion for tax performance in Sub-Saharan Africa," Economic Analysis and Policy, Elsevier, vol. 69(C), pages 159-170.
    9. Asongu, Simplice A. & Nnanna, Joseph & Acha-Anyi, Paul N., 2020. "Finance, inequality and inclusive education in Sub-Saharan Africa," Economic Analysis and Policy, Elsevier, vol. 67(C), pages 162-177.
    10. Simplice Asongu & Nicholas Odhiambo, 2019. "Thresholds of income inequality that mitigate the role of gender inclusive education in promoting gender economic inclusion in sub-Saharan Africa," Social Responsibility Journal, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 17(1), pages 106-126, December.
    11. Asongu, Simplice & Uduji, Joseph & Okolo-Obasi, Elda, 2019. "Thresholds of External Flows for Inclusive Human Development in Sub-Saharan Africa," MPRA Paper 101521, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    12. Asongu, Simplice A. & Nnanna, Joseph & Acha-Anyi, Paul N., 2020. "Inequality and gender economic inclusion: The moderating role of financial access in Sub-Saharan Africa," Economic Analysis and Policy, Elsevier, vol. 65(C), pages 173-185.
    13. Joseph Ikechukwu Uduji & Elda N. Okolo‐Obasi & Simplice A. Asongu, 2019. "Corporate social responsibility and the role of rural women in sustainable agricultural development in sub‐Saharan Africa: Evidence from the Niger Delta in Nigeria," Sustainable Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 27(4), pages 692-703, July.
    14. Simplice Asongu & Nicholas Odhiambo, 2019. "Inequality and the economic participation of women in sub-Saharan Africa: An empirical investigation," African Journal of Economic and Management Studies, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 11(2), pages 193-206, June.
    15. Simplice A. Asongu & Joseph Nnanna & Paul N. Acha-Anyi, 2020. "Inclusive Education for Inclusive Economic Participation: the Financial Access Channel," Research Africa Network Working Papers 20/019, Research Africa Network (RAN).
    16. Simplice A. Asongu & Nicholas M. Odhiambo, 2020. "The role of Globalization in Modulating the Effect of Environmental Degradation on Inclusive Human Development," Working Papers of the African Governance and Development Institute. 20/015, African Governance and Development Institute..
    17. Asongu, Simplice & Diop, Samba & Addis, Amsalu, 2020. "Governance, Inequality and Inclusive Education in Sub-Saharan Africa," MPRA Paper 107512, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    18. Simplice Asongu & Joseph Nnanna, 2020. "Inclusive human development in sub-Saharan Africa," Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 14(2), pages 183-200, April.
    19. Asongu, Simplice A. & Odhiambo, Nicholas M., 2020. "Inequality and gender inclusion: Minimum ICT policy thresholds for promoting female employment in Sub-Saharan Africa," Telecommunications Policy, Elsevier, vol. 44(4).
    20. Hyung Baek Lim & Chulwoo Kim, 2020. "The failure of a rural development project: South Korean official development assistance in the Democratic Republic of the Congo," Asian Journal of Agriculture and rural Development, Asian Economic and Social Society, vol. 10(1), pages 259-269, June.
    21. Tolulope T. Osinubi & Simplice A. Asongu, 2020. "Globalization and Female Economic Participation in MINT and BRICS countries," Working Papers of the African Governance and Development Institute. 20/058, African Governance and Development Institute..

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Begoña Gutiérrez Nieto & Carlos Serrano-Cinca, 2019. "20 Years of Research in Microfinance: An Information Management Approach," Working Papers CEB 19-005, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
    2. Chliova, Myrto & Brinckmann, Jan & Rosenbusch, Nina, 2015. "Is microcredit a blessing for the poor? A meta-analysis examining development outcomes and contextual considerations," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 30(3), pages 467-487.
    3. Dilruba Khanam & Muhammad Mohiuddin & Asadul Hoque & Olaf Weber, 2018. "Financing micro-entrepreneurs for poverty alleviation: a performance analysis of microfinance services offered by BRAC, ASA, and Proshika from Bangladesh," Journal of Global Entrepreneurship Research, Springer;UNESCO Chair in Entrepreneurship, vol. 8(1), pages 1-17, December.
    4. Yount, Kathryn M. & Cheong, Yuk Fai & Khan, Zara & Miedema, Stephanie S. & Naved, Ruchira T., 2021. "Women's participation in microfinance: Effects on Women's agency, exposure to partner violence, and mental health," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 270(C).
    5. Rajalaxmi Kamath & Abhi Dattasharma, 2017. "Women and Household Cash Management: Evidence from Financial Diaries in India," The European Journal of Development Research, Palgrave Macmillan;European Association of Development Research and Training Institutes (EADI), vol. 29(1), pages 73-92, January.
    6. Rao, Smriti, 2008. "Reforms with a Female Face: Gender, Liberalization, and Economic Policy in Andhra Pradesh, India," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 36(7), pages 1213-1232, July.
    7. Simon Zaby, 2019. "Science Mapping of the Global Knowledge Base on Microfinance: Influential Authors and Documents, 1989–2019," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 11(14), pages 1-21, July.
    8. Mohamed Arouri & Nguyen Viet Cuong, 2020. "Does microcredit reduce the gender gap in employment? Evidence from Egypt," African Development Review, African Development Bank, vol. 32(2), pages 111-124, June.
    9. Lauren A. Hayes, 2017. "The hidden labor of repayment: Women, credit, and strategies of microenterprise in northern Honduras," Economic Anthropology, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 4(1), pages 22-36, January.
    10. Donatien Eze Eze, 2019. "Microfinance programs and domestic violence in northern Cameroon; the case of the Familial Rural Income Improvement Program," Review of Economics of the Household, Springer, vol. 17(3), pages 947-967, September.
    11. Boehe, Dirk Michael & Barin Cruz, Luciano, 2013. "Gender and Microfinance Performance: Why Does the Institutional Context Matter?," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 47(C), pages 121-135.
    12. Meier zu Selhausen, Felix, 2016. "Women's empowerment in Uganda: colonial roots and contemporary efforts, 1894-2012," Economics PhD Theses 0715, Department of Economics, University of Sussex Business School.
    13. Aggarwal, Raj & Goodell, John W. & Selleck, Lauren J., 2015. "Lending to women in microfinance: Role of social trust," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 24(1), pages 55-65.
    14. Mohamed El Hedi Arouri & Nguyen Viet Cuong, 2016. "Does Microcredit Reduce Gender Gap in Employment? An Application of Decomposition Analysis to Egypt," Working Papers 1017, Economic Research Forum, revised Jun 2016.
    15. Namizata Binaté Fofana & Gerrit Antonides & Anke Niehof & Johan Ophem, 2015. "How microfinance empowers women in Côte d’Ivoire," Review of Economics of the Household, Springer, vol. 13(4), pages 1023-1041, December.
    16. Johnson, Susan, 2004. "Gender Norms in Financial Markets: Evidence from Kenya," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 32(8), pages 1355-1374, August.
    17. Hans-Jürgen Andreß, 2014. "Frieden und Emanzipation?," AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv, Springer;Deutsche Statistische Gesellschaft - German Statistical Society, vol. 8(1), pages 7-31, June.
    18. Marco Caliendo & Frank M. Fossen & Alexander Kritikos & Miriam Wetter, 2015. "The Gender Gap in Entrepreneurship: Not just a Matter of Personality," CESifo Economic Studies, CESifo, vol. 61(1), pages 202-238.
    19. Oglobin, C., 2005. "The Gender Earnings Differential in Russia After a Decade of Economic Transition," Applied Econometrics and International Development, Euro-American Association of Economic Development, vol. 5(3).
    20. F. le R. Booysen, 2001. "Non‐Payment Of Services: A Problem Of Ability‐To‐Pay," South African Journal of Economics, Economic Society of South Africa, vol. 69(4), pages 674-697, December.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Africa; Gender Inequality; Ghana; Intra-Household Analysis; and Microfinance;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • J16 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination
    • G21 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Banks; Other Depository Institutions; Micro Finance Institutions; Mortgages
    • D13 - Microeconomics - - Household Behavior - - - Household Production and Intrahouse Allocation

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:afe:journl:v:20:y:2018:i:2:p:21-33. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/afeaaea.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Christian Nsiah (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/afeaaea.html .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.