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FDI and income inequality in Africa

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  • Teresia Kaulihowa
  • Charles Adjasi

Abstract

This paper tests the impact of foreign direct investment (FDI) on income inequality in a panel of 16 African countries from 1980 to 2013. We controlled for both non-linear effects and heterogeneity by using a Pooled Mean Group estimator. There is robust evidence that the relationship is non-linear and we document a U-shaped effect of FDI on inequality. The results reveal that FDI increases equality of distribution of income in the countries examined. However, this effect diminishes with further increases in FDI. Policy implications emanating from this study suggest that although FDI may be growth enhancing, FDI-induced growth may not necessarily translate into a reduction in inequality. FDI has to be structured in such way that the resulting skill-biased employed is mitigated. To address inequality, policy implications from this study imply that FDI has to target both ends of the labour market.

Suggested Citation

  • Teresia Kaulihowa & Charles Adjasi, 2018. "FDI and income inequality in Africa," Oxford Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 46(2), pages 250-265, April.
  • Handle: RePEc:taf:oxdevs:v:46:y:2018:i:2:p:250-265
    DOI: 10.1080/13600818.2017.1381233
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    Cited by:

    1. Asongu, Simplice A. & Orim, Stella-Maris I. & Nting, Rexon T., 2019. "Inequality, information technology and inclusive education in sub-Saharan Africa," Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Elsevier, vol. 146(C), pages 380-389.
    2. Asongu, Simplice A. & Nnanna, Joseph & Acha-Anyi, Paul N., 2020. "Inequality and gender economic inclusion: The moderating role of financial access in Sub-Saharan Africa," Economic Analysis and Policy, Elsevier, vol. 65(C), pages 173-185.
    3. Asongu, Simplice & Nting, Rexon, 2020. "The Comparative Economics of Financial Access in Gender Economic Inclusion," MPRA Paper 107515, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    4. Asongu, Simplice & Odhiambo, Nicholas, 2020. "The role of Globalization in Modulating the Effect of Environmental Degradation on Inclusive Human Development," MPRA Paper 103143, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    5. Simplice Asongu & Joseph Nnanna, 2020. "Inclusive human development in sub-Saharan Africa," Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 14(2), pages 183-200, April.
    6. Vanessa S. Tchamyou & Simplice A. Asongu & Nicholas M. Odhiambo, 2019. "The Role of ICT in Modulating the Effect of Education and Lifelong Learning on Income Inequality and Economic Growth in Africa," African Development Review, African Development Bank, vol. 31(3), pages 261-274, September.
    7. Asongu, Simplice & Uduji, Joseph & Okolo-Obasi, Elda, 2019. "Thresholds of External Flows for Inclusive Human Development in Sub-Saharan Africa," MPRA Paper 101521, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    8. Simplice A. Asongu & Nicholas M. Odhiambo, 2018. "ICT, Financial Access and Gender Inclusion in the Formal Economic Sector: Evidence from Africa," The African Finance Journal, Africagrowth Institute, vol. 20(2), pages 45-65.
    9. Simplice A. Asongu & Samba Diop & Amsalu K. Addis, 2020. "Governance, Inequality and Inclusive Education in Sub-Saharan Africa," Research Africa Network Working Papers 20/086, Research Africa Network (RAN).
    10. Simplice A. Asongu & Nicholas M. Odhiambo, 2019. "How enhancing information and communication technology has affected inequality in Africa for sustainable development: An empirical investigation," Sustainable Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 27(4), pages 647-656, July.
    11. Simplice A. Asongu & Nicholas M. Odhiambo, 2020. "Insurance and Inequality in Sub-Saharan Africa: Policy Thresholds," Working Papers of the African Governance and Development Institute. 20/005, African Governance and Development Institute..
    12. Asongu, Simplice A. & Nnanna, Joseph & Acha-Anyi, Paul N., 2020. "Finance, inequality and inclusive education in Sub-Saharan Africa," Economic Analysis and Policy, Elsevier, vol. 67(C), pages 162-177.
    13. Asongu, Simplice & Odhiambo, Nicholas, 2019. "Foreign Aid Complementarities and Inclusive Human Development in Africa," MPRA Paper 101086, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    14. Simplice A. Asongu & Joseph Nnanna & Paul N. Acha-Anyi, 2020. "Inclusive Education for Inclusive Economic Participation: the Financial Access Channel," Research Africa Network Working Papers 20/019, Research Africa Network (RAN).
    15. Asongu, Simplice & Amari, Mouna & Jarboui, Anis & Mouakhar, Khaireddine, 2021. "ICT dynamics for gender inclusive intermediary education: Minimum poverty and inequality thresholds in developing countries," Telecommunications Policy, Elsevier, vol. 45(5).
    16. Nguyen, Canh Phuc & Nasir, Muhammad Ali, 2021. "An inquiry into the nexus between energy poverty and income inequality in the light of global evidence," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 99(C).
    17. Aurora A. C. Teixeira & Ana Sofia Loureiro, 2019. "FDI, income inequality and poverty: a time series analysis of Portugal, 1973–2016," Portuguese Economic Journal, Springer;Instituto Superior de Economia e Gestao, vol. 18(3), pages 203-249, October.
    18. Shubin Wang & Junsheng Ha & Hakan Kalkavan & Serhat Yüksel & Hasan Dinçer, 2020. "IT2-Based Hybrid Approach for Sustainable Economic Equality: A Case of E7 Economies," SAGE Open, , vol. 10(2), pages 21582440209, May.
    19. Chenghong Xu & Mingming Han & Toyo Amegnonna Marcel Dossou & Festus Victor Bekun, 2021. "Trade openness, FDI, and income inequality: Evidence from sub‐Saharan Africa," African Development Review, African Development Bank, vol. 33(1), pages 193-203, March.
    20. Victor Stolzenburg & Marianne Matthee & Caro Janse van Rensburg & Carli Bezuidenhout, . "Foreign direct investment and gender inequality: evidence from South Africa," UNCTAD Transnational Corporations Journal, United Nations Conference on Trade and Development.
    21. Joyce, Joseph, 2021. "The International Distribution of FDI Income And Its Impact on Income Inequality," MPRA Paper 106448, University Library of Munich, Germany.

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