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How Enhancing Gender Inclusion Affects Inequality: Thresholds of Complementary Policies for Sustainable Development

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  • Simplice A. Asongu

    (Yaoundé/Cameroon)

  • Nicholas M. Odhiambo

    (Pretoria, South Africa)

Abstract

This study investigates how enhancing gender inclusion affects inequality in 42 African countries for the period 2004-2014. The empirical evidence is based on the Generalized Method of Moments. Three inequality indicators are used, namely, the: Gini coefficient, Atkinson index, and Palma ratio. The two gender inclusion measurements used include female labour force participation and female employment. The following main findings are established. There are positive net effects on inequality from the enhancement of gender inclusion dynamics. An extended threshold analysis is used to assess critical masses at which further increasing gender inclusion enhances inequality. The established thresholds are: (i) 55.555 “employment to population ratio, 15+, female (%)†for the nexus with the Gini coefficient. (ii) 50 “labor force participation rate, female (% of female population ages 15+)†and between 50 to 55 “employment to population ratio, 15+, female (%)†, for the Atkinson index. (iii) 61.87 “labor force participation rate, female (% of female population ages 15+)†for the Palma ratio.These established thresholds are worthwhile for sustainable development because, beyond the critical masses, policy makers should complement the gender inclusion policy with other measures designed to reduce income inequality. Some complementary measures that can be taken on board beyond the established thresholds could focus on enhancing, inter alia: information and communication technology, infrastructural development; financial inclusion and inclusive education.

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  • Simplice A. Asongu & Nicholas M. Odhiambo, 2019. "How Enhancing Gender Inclusion Affects Inequality: Thresholds of Complementary Policies for Sustainable Development," Working Papers 19/034, European Xtramile Centre of African Studies (EXCAS).
  • Handle: RePEc:exs:wpaper:19/034
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    1. Asongu, Simplice A. & Adegboye, Alex & Nnanna, Joseph, 2021. "Promoting female economic inclusion for tax performance in Sub-Saharan Africa," Economic Analysis and Policy, Elsevier, vol. 69(C), pages 159-170.
    2. Simplice Asongu & Nicholas Odhiambo, 2019. "Thresholds of income inequality that mitigate the role of gender inclusive education in promoting gender economic inclusion in sub-Saharan Africa," Social Responsibility Journal, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 17(1), pages 106-126, December.
    3. Simplice A. Asongu & Joseph Nnanna & Vanessa S. Tchamyou, 2020. "The comparative African regional economics of globalization in financial allocation efficiency: the pre-crisis era revisited," Financial Innovation, Springer;Southwestern University of Finance and Economics, vol. 6(1), pages 1-41, December.
    4. Chenghong Xu & Mingming Han & Toyo Amegnonna Marcel Dossou & Festus Victor Bekun, 2021. "Trade openness, FDI, and income inequality: Evidence from sub‐Saharan Africa," African Development Review, African Development Bank, vol. 33(1), pages 193-203, March.
    5. Asongu, Simplice A. & Odhiambo, Nicholas M., 2020. "Foreign direct investment, information technology and economic growth dynamics in Sub-Saharan Africa," Telecommunications Policy, Elsevier, vol. 44(1).
    6. Joseph Ikechukwu Uduji & Elda Nduka Okolo-Obasi & Simplice Asongu, 2020. "Women’s participation in the offshore and inshore fisheries entrepreneurship: The role of CSR in Nigeria’s oil coastal communities," Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 14(2), pages 247-275, April.
    7. Asongu, Simplice & Odhiambo, Nicholas, 2021. "Mobile technology supply factors and mobile money innovation: Thresholds for complementary policies," MPRA Paper 110138, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    8. Teheni El Ghak & Awatef Gdairia & Boutheina Abassi, 0. "High-tech Entrepreneurship and Total Factor Productivity: the Case of Innovation-Driven Economies," Journal of the Knowledge Economy, Springer;Portland International Center for Management of Engineering and Technology (PICMET), vol. 0, pages 1-35.
    9. Osinubi, Tolulope & Asongu, Simplice, 2020. "Globalization and Female Economic Participation in MINT and BRICS countries," MPRA Paper 107138, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    10. Joseph I. Uduji & Elda N. Okolo-Obasi & Simplice A. Asongu, 2020. "Women’s Participation in the Offshore and Inshore Fisheries Entrepreneurship: the Role of CSR in Nigeria’s Oil Coastal Communities," Working Papers 20/012, European Xtramile Centre of African Studies (EXCAS).
    11. Yselle F. Malah Kuete & Simplice A. Asongu, 2021. "Infrastructure development as a prerequisite for structural change in Africa," Working Papers 21/040, European Xtramile Centre of African Studies (EXCAS).
    12. Teheni El Ghak & Awatef Gdairia & Boutheina Abassi, 2021. "High-tech Entrepreneurship and Total Factor Productivity: the Case of Innovation-Driven Economies," Journal of the Knowledge Economy, Springer;Portland International Center for Management of Engineering and Technology (PICMET), vol. 12(3), pages 1152-1186, September.
    13. Sumbal Fatima & Bateer Chen & Muhammad Ramzan & Qamar Abbas, 2020. "The Nexus Between Trade Openness and GDP Growth: Analyzing the Role of Human Capital Accumulation," SAGE Open, , vol. 10(4), pages 21582440209, November.
    14. Eduardo Polloni-Silva & Naijela da Costa & Herick Fernando Moralles & Mario Sacomano Neto, 2021. "Does Financial Inclusion Diminish Poverty and Inequality? A Panel Data Analysis for Latin American Countries," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, vol. 158(3), pages 889-925, December.
    15. Michael A. Nelson & Rajeev K. Goel, 2021. "Does Gender Equality Translate into Economic Equality? Evidence from about 150 Nations," CESifo Working Paper Series 8949, CESifo.
    16. Enrico Fontana, 2020. "Managing diversity through transgender inclusion in developing countries: A collaborative corporate social responsibility initiative from Bangladesh," Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management, John Wiley & Sons, vol. 27(6), pages 2548-2562, November.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Africa; Gender; Inclusive development; Sustainable development;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • G20 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - General
    • I10 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Health - - - General
    • I32 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Welfare, Well-Being, and Poverty - - - Measurement and Analysis of Poverty
    • O40 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Growth and Aggregate Productivity - - - General
    • O55 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economywide Country Studies - - - Africa

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