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Inequality and the economic participation of women in Sub-Saharan Africa: An empirical investigation

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  • Asongu, Simplice A
  • Odhiambo, Nicholas M

Abstract

This study investigates the effect of inequality on female employment in 42 countries in sub-Saharan Africa for the period 2004-2014. Three inequality indicators are used, namely, the: Gini coefficient, Atkinson index and Palma ratio. Two indicators of gender inclusion are also employed, namely: female employment and female unemployment rates. The empirical analysis is based on the Generalised Method of Moments (GMM).The following main findings are established. First, inequality increases female unemployment in regressions based on the Palma ratio. Second, from the robustness checks, inequality reduces female employment within the frameworks of the Gini coefficient and Palma ratio.

Suggested Citation

  • Asongu, Simplice A & Odhiambo, Nicholas M, 2019. "Inequality and the economic participation of women in Sub-Saharan Africa: An empirical investigation," Working Papers 25483, University of South Africa, Department of Economics.
  • Handle: RePEc:uza:wpaper:25483
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    Cited by:

    1. Simplice A. Asongu & Nicholas M. Odhiambo, 2021. "Income Levels, Governance and Inclusive Human Development in Sub-Saharan Africa," Applied Research in Quality of Life, Springer;International Society for Quality-of-Life Studies, vol. 16(1), pages 71-103, February.
    2. Chimere O. Iheonu & Ozoemena S. Nwodo & Uchechi S. Anaduaka & Ugochinyere Ekpo, 2020. "Inequality and Female Labour Force Participation in West Africa," Research Africa Network Working Papers 20/076, Research Africa Network (RAN).
    3. Simplice A. Asongu & Nicholas M. Odhiambo, 2020. "How enhancing gender inclusion affects inequality: Thresholds of complementary policies for sustainable development," Sustainable Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 28(1), pages 132-142, January.
    4. Simplice A. Asongu & Nicholas M. Odhiambo, 2020. "Inequality thresholds, governance and gender economic inclusion in sub-Saharan Africa," International Review of Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 34(1), pages 94-114, January.
    5. Asongu, Simplice A. & Nounamo, Yann & Njangang, Henri & Tadadjeu, Sosson, 2021. "Gender inclusive intermediary education, financial stability and female employment in the industry in Sub-Saharan Africa," Finance Research Letters, Elsevier, vol. 43(C).
    6. Chimere O. Iheonu & Ozoemena S. Nwodo & Uchechi S. Anaduaka & Ugochinyere Ekpo, 2020. "Inequality and Female Labour Force Participation in West Africa," Working Papers of the African Governance and Development Institute. 20/076, African Governance and Development Institute..
    7. Pamela E. Ofori & Simplice A. Asongu & Vanessa S. Tchamyou, 2021. "The Synergy between Governance and Economic Integration in Promoting Female Economic Inclusion in Sub-Saharan Africa," Working Papers 21/071, European Xtramile Centre of African Studies (EXCAS).
    8. Simplice A. Asongu & Mushfiqur Rahman & Mohammad Alghababsheh, 2022. "Information Technology, Business Sustainability and Female Economic Participation in Sub-Saharan Africa," Working Papers 22/057, European Xtramile Centre of African Studies (EXCAS).
    9. Joseph I. Uduji & Elda N. Okolo-Obasi & Simplice A. Asongu, 2020. "Women’s Participation in the Offshore and Inshore Fisheries Entrepreneurship: the Role of CSR in Nigeria’s Oil Coastal Communities," Research Africa Network Working Papers 20/012, Research Africa Network (RAN).
    10. Simplice A. Asongu & Beatrice D. Simo-Kengne, 2022. "Demographic Change and Wealth Inequality: Global Evidence," Working Papers of the African Governance and Development Institute. 22/085, African Governance and Development Institute..
    11. Odhiambo, Nicholas M., 2022. "Information technology, income inequality and economic growth in sub-Saharan African countries," Telecommunications Policy, Elsevier, vol. 46(6).
    12. Chimere O. Iheonu & Ozoemena S. Nwodo & Uchechi S. Anaduaka & Ugochinyere Ekpo, 2020. "Inequality and Female Labour Force Participation in West Africa," Working Papers 20/076, European Xtramile Centre of African Studies (EXCAS).
    13. Joseph I. Uduji & Elda N. Okolo-Obasi & Simplice A. Asongu, 2020. "Women’s Participation in the Offshore and Inshore Fisheries Entrepreneurship: the Role of CSR in Nigeria’s Oil Coastal Communities," Working Papers of the African Governance and Development Institute. 20/012, African Governance and Development Institute..
    14. Pamela E. Ofori & Simplice A. Asongu & Vanessa S. Tchamyou & Raufhon Salahodjaev, 2023. "The Synergy between Governance and Trade Openness in Promoting Female Economic Inclusion in Sub-Saharan Africa," Working Papers 23/001, European Xtramile Centre of African Studies (EXCAS).
    15. Chimere O. Iheonu & Ozoemena S. Nwodo & Uchechi S. Anaduaka & Ugochinyere Ekpo, 2020. "Inequality and Female Labour Force Participation in West Africa," Working Papers of The Association for Promoting Women in Research and Development in Africa (ASPROWORDA). 20/008, The Association for Promoting Women in Research and Development in Africa (ASPROWORDA).

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Africa; Gender; Inclusive development;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • G20 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - General
    • I10 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Health - - - General
    • I32 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Welfare, Well-Being, and Poverty - - - Measurement and Analysis of Poverty
    • O40 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Growth and Aggregate Productivity - - - General
    • O55 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economywide Country Studies - - - Africa

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