IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/eee/ecanpo/v60y2018icp27-42.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

An empirical examination of the relationship between income inequality and corruption in Africa

Author

Listed:
  • Sulemana, Iddisah
  • Kpienbaareh, Daniel

Abstract

Most studies examining the relationship between corruption and income inequality have treated income inequality as the dependent variable and corruption as an independent variable. However, a sparse but growing strand of the literature now looks at the reverse because there is reason to believe that higher income inequality may influence corruption levels. Furthermore, the empirical literature is inconclusive on the exact relationship between income inequality and corruption across different regions and income categories. We contribute to this literature by providing empirical evidence from Sub-Saharan Africa using an unbalanced panel data for 48 countries from 1996 to 2016. Contrary to prior results from developed countries, our results show that higher levels of income inequality are rather associated with lower corruption levels and suggestive of a changing relationship between income inequality and corruption among countries on different income trajectories. We also find a reverse causality between income inequality and corruption and that corruption Granger-causes income inequality. Finally, results from OLS, random effects and fixed effects models reveal a U-shaped relationship between income inequality and corruption for low-income and lower-middle-income African countries with turning point income inequality levels ranging from 22 to 52.

Suggested Citation

  • Sulemana, Iddisah & Kpienbaareh, Daniel, 2018. "An empirical examination of the relationship between income inequality and corruption in Africa," Economic Analysis and Policy, Elsevier, vol. 60(C), pages 27-42.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:ecanpo:v:60:y:2018:i:c:p:27-42
    DOI: 10.1016/j.eap.2018.09.003
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0313592618301498
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    File URL: https://libkey.io/10.1016/j.eap.2018.09.003?utm_source=ideas
    LibKey link: if access is restricted and if your library uses this service, LibKey will redirect you to where you can use your library subscription to access this item
    ---><---

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Suresh Babu, M. & Bhaskaran, Vandana & Venkatesh, Manasa, 2016. "Does inequality hamper long run growth? Evidence from Emerging Economies," Economic Analysis and Policy, Elsevier, vol. 52(C), pages 99-113.
    2. Deborah Potts, 2008. "The urban informal sector in sub-Saharan Africa: from bad to good (and back again?)," Development Southern Africa, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 25(2), pages 151-167.
    3. Felipe Larraín & José Tavares, 2004. "Does Foreign Direct Investment Decrease Corruption?," Latin American Journal of Economics-formerly Cuadernos de Economía, Instituto de Economía. Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile., vol. 41(123), pages 217-230.
    4. Bourguignon, Francois & Verdier, Thierry, 2000. "Oligarchy, democracy, inequality and growth," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 62(2), pages 285-313, August.
    5. Nicholas Apergis & Oguzhan Dincer & James E. Payne, 2014. "Economic Freedom And Income Inequality Revisited: Evidence From A Panel Error Correction Model," Contemporary Economic Policy, Western Economic Association International, vol. 32(1), pages 67-75, January.
    6. Kolstad, Ivar & Wiig, Arne, 2009. "Is Transparency the Key to Reducing Corruption in Resource-Rich Countries?," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 37(3), pages 521-532, March.
    7. William T. Harbaugh & Arik Levinson & David Molloy Wilson, 2002. "Reexamining The Empirical Evidence For An Environmental Kuznets Curve," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 84(3), pages 541-551, August.
    8. Policardo, Laura & Carrera, Edgar J. Sánchez, 2018. "Corruption causes inequality, or is it the other way around? An empirical investigation for a panel of countries," Economic Analysis and Policy, Elsevier, vol. 59(C), pages 92-102.
    9. Stern, David I. & Common, Michael S., 2001. "Is There an Environmental Kuznets Curve for Sulfur?," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 41(2), pages 162-178, March.
    10. Robert Hoffmann & Chew-Ging Lee & Bala Ramasamy & Matthew Yeung, 2005. "FDI and pollution: a granger causality test using panel data," Journal of International Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 17(3), pages 311-317.
    11. Stern, David I., 2004. "The Rise and Fall of the Environmental Kuznets Curve," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 32(8), pages 1419-1439, August.
    12. Lorenzo Pellegrini & Reyer Gerlagh, 2004. "Corruption's Effect on Growth and its Transmission Channels," Kyklos, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 57(3), pages 429-456, August.
    13. Qian Hongdao & Ayesha Mumtaz & Hamid Mukhtar & Hafiz Abdul Rahman Saleem & Sonia Azam, 2018. "Corruption Prevention and Economic Growth: A Mediating Effect of Rule of Law," International Journal of Social Science Studies, Redfame publishing, vol. 6(2), pages 128-143, February.
    14. Dobson, Stephen & Ramlogan-Dobson, Carlyn, 2012. "Why is Corruption Less Harmful to Income Inequality in Latin America?," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 40(8), pages 1534-1545.
    15. M. Emranul Haque & Richard Kneller, 2015. "Why does Public Investment Fail to Raise Economic Growth? The Role of Corruption," Manchester School, University of Manchester, vol. 83(6), pages 623-651, December.
    16. Chong, Alberto & Calderon, Cesar, 2000. "Institutional Quality and Income Distribution," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 48(4), pages 761-786, July.
    17. John A. List, 2004. "Young, Selfish and Male: Field evidence of social preferences," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 114(492), pages 121-149, January.
    18. Oguzhan C. Dincer & Burak Gunalp, 2008. "Corruption, Income Inequality, and Poverty in the United States," Working Papers 2008.54, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei.
    19. Brush, Jesse, 2007. "Does income inequality lead to more crime? A comparison of cross-sectional and time-series analyses of United States counties," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 96(2), pages 264-268, August.
    20. Dobson, Stephen & Ramlogan-Dobson, Carlyn, 2010. "Is there a trade-off between income inequality and corruption? Evidence from Latin America," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 107(2), pages 102-104, May.
    21. Antonio Andres & Carlyn Ramlogan-Dobson, 2011. "Is Corruption Really Bad for Inequality? Evidence from Latin America," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 47(7), pages 959-976.
    22. Kwabena Gyimah-Brempong, 2002. "Corruption, economic growth, and income inequality in Africa," Economics of Governance, Springer, vol. 3(3), pages 183-209, November.
    23. Luigi Benfratello & Alfredo Del Monte & Luca Pennacchio, 2018. "Corruption and public debt: a cross-country analysis," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 25(5), pages 340-344, March.
    24. Detollenaere, Jens & Desmarest, Ann-Sophie & Boeckxstaens, Pauline & Willems, Sara, 2018. "The link between income inequality and health in Europe, adding strength dimensions of primary care to the equation," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 201(C), pages 103-110.
    25. Dumitrescu, Elena-Ivona & Hurlin, Christophe, 2012. "Testing for Granger non-causality in heterogeneous panels," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 29(4), pages 1450-1460.
    26. Sanjeev Gupta & Hamid Davoodi & Rosa Alonso-Terme, 2002. "Does corruption affect income inequality and poverty?," Economics of Governance, Springer, vol. 3(1), pages 23-45, March.
    27. Daniel Suryadarma, 2012. "How corruption diminishes the effectiveness of public spending on education in Indonesia," Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 48(1), pages 85-100, April.
    28. T. S. Breusch & A. R. Pagan, 1980. "The Lagrange Multiplier Test and its Applications to Model Specification in Econometrics," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 47(1), pages 239-253.
    29. Hausman, Jerry, 2015. "Specification tests in econometrics," Applied Econometrics, Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA), vol. 38(2), pages 112-134.
    30. Kate Meagher, 1995. "Crisis, Informalization and the Urban Informal Sector in Sub‐Saharan Africa," Development and Change, International Institute of Social Studies, vol. 26(2), pages 259-284, April.
    31. Panayotou, Theodore, 1997. "Demystifying the environmental Kuznets curve: turning a black box into a policy tool," Environment and Development Economics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 2(4), pages 465-484, November.
    32. Luciano Lopez & Sylvain Weber, 2017. "Testing for Granger causality in panel data," Stata Journal, StataCorp LP, vol. 17(4), pages 972-984, December.
    33. repec:hrv:faseco:30747194 is not listed on IDEAS
    34. Justesen, Mogens K. & Bjørnskov, Christian, 2014. "Exploiting the Poor: Bureaucratic Corruption and Poverty in Africa," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 58(C), pages 106-115.
    35. Hongyi Li & Lixin Colin Xu & Heng‐fu Zou, 2000. "Corruption, Income Distribution, and Growth," Economics and Politics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 12(2), pages 155-182, July.
    36. Olken, Benjamin A., 2006. "Corruption and the costs of redistribution: Micro evidence from Indonesia," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 90(4-5), pages 853-870, May.
    37. Iddisah Sulemana & Harvey S. James & James S. Rikoon, 2017. "Environmental Kuznets Curves for air pollution in African and developed countries: exploring turning point incomes and the role of democracy," Journal of Environmental Economics and Policy, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 6(2), pages 134-152, April.
    38. Saha, Shrabani & Ben Ali, Mohamed Sami, 2017. "Corruption and Economic Development: New Evidence from the Middle Eastern and North African Countries," Economic Analysis and Policy, Elsevier, vol. 54(C), pages 83-95.
    39. Fakir, Adnan M.S. & Ahmad, Azraf Uddin & Hosain, K.M. Masnun & Hossain, Mostafa Rafid & Gani, Ridhim Sadman, 2017. "The comparative effect of corruption and Piketty’s second fundamental law of capitalism on inequality," Economic Analysis and Policy, Elsevier, vol. 55(C), pages 90-105.
    40. Iddisah Sulemana & Abdul Malik Iddrisu & Jude E. Kyoore, 2017. "A Micro-Level Study of the Relationship Between Experienced Corruption and Subjective Wellbeing in Africa," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 53(1), pages 138-155, January.
    41. Granger, C W J, 1969. "Investigating Causal Relations by Econometric Models and Cross-Spectral Methods," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 37(3), pages 424-438, July.
    42. Glaeser, Edward & Scheinkman, Jose & Shleifer, Andrei, 2003. "The injustice of inequality," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 50(1), pages 199-222, January.
    43. Milanovic, Branko, 2000. "The median-voter hypothesis, income inequality, and income redistribution: an empirical test with the required data," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 16(3), pages 367-410, September.
    44. Branko Milanovic, 2013. "Global Income Inequality in Numbers: in History and Now," Global Policy, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 4(2), pages 198-208, May.
    45. Xaba, Jantjie. & Horn, Pat. & Motala, Shirin. & Singh, Andrea., 2002. "Informal sector in Sub-Saharan Africa," ILO Working Papers 993551903402676, International Labour Organization.
    46. Kanybek Nur-tegin & Hans J. Czap, 2012. "Corruption: Democracy, Autocracy, and Political Stability," Economic Analysis and Policy, Elsevier, vol. 42(1), pages 51-66, March.
    47. Shady Kholdy & Ahmad Sohrabian, 1990. "Exchange Rates and Prices: Evidence from Granger Causality Tests," Journal of Post Keynesian Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 13(1), pages 71-78, September.
    48. Cieślik, Andrzej & Goczek, Łukasz, 2018. "Control of corruption, international investment, and economic growth – Evidence from panel data," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 103(C), pages 323-335.
    49. Atkinson, Anthony B., 1970. "On the measurement of inequality," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 2(3), pages 244-263, September.
    50. repec:oup:jafrec:v:22:y:2013:i:4:p:-569 is not listed on IDEAS
    51. Alesina, Alberto & Angeletos, George-Marios, 2005. "Corruption, inequality, and fairness," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 52(7), pages 1227-1244, October.
    52. Chiung-Ju Huang, 2013. "Corruption and Income Inequality in Asian Countries: Bootstrap Panel Granger Causality Test," Journal for Economic Forecasting, Institute for Economic Forecasting, vol. 0(4), pages 161-170, December.
    53. Sen, Amartya, 1997. "On Economic Inequality," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780198292975.
    54. Martha Alter Chen, 2005. "Rethinking the Informal Economy: Linkages with the Formal Economy and the Formal Regulatory Environment," WIDER Working Paper Series RP2005-10, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
    55. Babones, Salvatore J., 2008. "Income inequality and population health: Correlation and causality," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 66(7), pages 1614-1626, April.
    56. Paolo Mauro, 1995. "Corruption and Growth," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 110(3), pages 681-712.
    57. Kwabena Gyimah-Brempong & Samaria de Gyimah-Brempong, 2006. "Corruption, Growth, and Income Distribution: Are there Regional Differences?," Economics of Governance, Springer, vol. 7(3), pages 245-269, August.
    58. repec:ilo:ilowps:355190 is not listed on IDEAS
    59. Paldam, Martin, 2002. "The cross-country pattern of corruption: economics, culture and the seesaw dynamics," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 18(2), pages 215-240, June.
    60. Berrittella, Maria & Dardanoni, Valentino, 2016. "Nonlinearity in intergenerational income transmission: A cross-country analysis," Economic Analysis and Policy, Elsevier, vol. 52(C), pages 1-10.
    61. Berisha, Edmond & Meszaros, John & Olson, Eric, 2018. "Income inequality, equities, household debt, and interest rates: Evidence from a century of data," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 80(C), pages 1-14.
    62. Bosco, Bruno, 2016. "Old and new factors affecting corruption in Europe: Evidence from panel data," Economic Analysis and Policy, Elsevier, vol. 51(C), pages 66-85.
    63. Dincer, Oguzhan C. & Gunalp, Burak, 2008. "Corruption, Income Inequality, and Poverty in the United States," Knowledge, Technology, Human Capital Working Papers 37848, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei (FEEM).
    64. Berrittella, Maria, 2017. "Can stability of foreign aid agreement reduce global income inequality?," Economic Analysis and Policy, Elsevier, vol. 54(C), pages 105-111.
    65. Nicholas Apergis & Oguzhan Dincer & James Payne, 2010. "The relationship between corruption and income inequality in U.S. states: evidence from a panel cointegration and error correction model," Public Choice, Springer, vol. 145(1), pages 125-135, October.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Simplice A. Asongu & Nicholas M. Odhiambo, 2019. "How enhancing information and communication technology has affected inequality in Africa for sustainable development: An empirical investigation," Sustainable Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 27(4), pages 647-656, July.
    2. Simplice A. Asongu & Nicholas M. Odhiambo, 2018. "ICT, Financial Access and Gender Inclusion in the Formal Economic Sector: Evidence from Africa," The African Finance Journal, Africagrowth Institute, vol. 20(2), pages 45-65.
    3. Asongu, Simplice & Odhiambo, Nicholas, 2019. "Foreign Aid Complementarities and Inclusive Human Development in Africa," MPRA Paper 101086, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    4. Vanessa S. Tchamyou & Simplice A. Asongu & Nicholas M. Odhiambo, 2019. "The Role of ICT in Modulating the Effect of Education and Lifelong Learning on Income Inequality and Economic Growth in Africa," African Development Review, African Development Bank, vol. 31(3), pages 261-274, September.
    5. Asongu, Simplice A. & Nnanna, Joseph & Acha-Anyi, Paul N., 2020. "Finance, inequality and inclusive education in Sub-Saharan Africa," Economic Analysis and Policy, Elsevier, vol. 67(C), pages 162-177.
    6. Asongu, Simplice A. & Orim, Stella-Maris I. & Nting, Rexon T., 2019. "Inequality, information technology and inclusive education in sub-Saharan Africa," Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Elsevier, vol. 146(C), pages 380-389.
    7. Asongu, Simplice A. & Nnanna, Joseph & Acha-Anyi, Paul N., 2020. "Inequality and gender economic inclusion: The moderating role of financial access in Sub-Saharan Africa," Economic Analysis and Policy, Elsevier, vol. 65(C), pages 173-185.
    8. Asongu, Simplice & Uduji, Joseph & Okolo-Obasi, Elda, 2019. "Thresholds of External Flows for Inclusive Human Development in Sub-Saharan Africa," MPRA Paper 101521, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    9. Simplice A. Asongu & Rexon T. Nting, 2020. "The Comparative Economics of Financial Access in Gender Economic Inclusion," Research Africa Network Working Papers 20/089, Research Africa Network (RAN).
    10. Simplice A. Asongu & Joseph Nnanna & Paul N. Acha-Anyi, 2020. "Inclusive Education for Inclusive Economic Participation: the Financial Access Channel," Research Africa Network Working Papers 20/019, Research Africa Network (RAN).
    11. Simplice A. Asongu & Nicholas M. Odhiambo, 2020. "The role of Globalization in Modulating the Effect of Environmental Degradation on Inclusive Human Development," Working Papers of the African Governance and Development Institute. 20/015, African Governance and Development Institute..
    12. Asongu, Simplice & Diop, Samba & Addis, Amsalu, 2020. "Governance, Inequality and Inclusive Education in Sub-Saharan Africa," MPRA Paper 107512, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    13. Simplice Asongu & Joseph Nnanna, 2020. "Inclusive human development in sub-Saharan Africa," Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 14(2), pages 183-200, April.
    14. Mark Edem Kunawotor & Charles Barnor & Raymond Dziwornu, 2021. "The Income Redistributive Effects of Taxes in Africa," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 41(3), pages 1579-1591.
    15. Alvarado, Rafael & Tillaguango, Brayan & López-Sánchez, Michelle & Ponce, Pablo & Işık, Cem, 2021. "Heterogeneous impact of natural resources on income inequality: The role of the shadow economy and human capital index," Economic Analysis and Policy, Elsevier, vol. 69(C), pages 690-704.
    16. Mark Edem Kunawotor & Godfred Alufar Bokpin & Charles Barnor, 2020. "Drivers of income inequality in Africa: Does institutional quality matter?," African Development Review, African Development Bank, vol. 32(4), pages 718-729, December.
    17. Simplice A. Asongu & Nicholas M. Odhiambo, 2020. "Insurance and Inequality in Sub-Saharan Africa: Policy Thresholds," Working Papers of the African Governance and Development Institute. 20/005, African Governance and Development Institute..
    18. Garg, Shamita & Sushil,, 2021. "Determinants of deglobalization: A hierarchical model to explore their interrelations as a conduit to policy," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 43(2), pages 433-447.
    19. Lavinia DudaÈ™ & Lavinia MihiÈ›, 2019. "What Shapes Elections and Corruption in Emerging and Developing Countries ?," Ovidius University Annals, Economic Sciences Series, Ovidius University of Constantza, Faculty of Economic Sciences, vol. 0(1), pages 195-201, August.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Eugen Dimant & Guglielmo Tosato, 2018. "Causes And Effects Of Corruption: What Has Past Decade'S Empirical Research Taught Us? A Survey," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 32(2), pages 335-356, April.
    2. Policardo, Laura & Carrera, Edgar J. Sánchez, 2018. "Corruption causes inequality, or is it the other way around? An empirical investigation for a panel of countries," Economic Analysis and Policy, Elsevier, vol. 59(C), pages 92-102.
    3. Chi-Chuan Lee & Chien-Chiang Lee, 2018. "The Impact of Country Risk on Income Inequality: A Multilevel Analysis," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, vol. 136(1), pages 139-162, February.
    4. Dobson, Stephen & Ramlogan-Dobson, Carlyn, 2012. "Why is Corruption Less Harmful to Income Inequality in Latin America?," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 40(8), pages 1534-1545.
    5. Antonio Andres & Carlyn Ramlogan-Dobson, 2011. "Is Corruption Really Bad for Inequality? Evidence from Latin America," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 47(7), pages 959-976.
    6. Dwiputri, Inayati Nuraini & Arsyad, Lincolin & Pradiptyo, Rimawan, 2018. "The corruption-income inequality trap: A study of Asian countries," Economics Discussion Papers 2018-81, Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW).
    7. Humna Ahsan & Keith Blackburn, 2015. "Human capital and income distribution in a model of corruption," Centre for Growth and Business Cycle Research Discussion Paper Series 208, Economics, The University of Manchester.
    8. Bienvenido Ortega & Antonio Casquero & Jesús Sanjuán, 2016. "Corruption and Convergence in Human Development: Evidence from 69 Countries During 1990–2012," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, vol. 127(2), pages 691-719, June.
    9. Rana Ejaz Ali Khan & Hafiza Maria Naeem, 2020. "Corruption, Income Inequality and Human Resource Development in Developing Economies," Asian Journal of Economic Modelling, Asian Economic and Social Society, vol. 8(4), pages 248-259, December.
    10. Héctor Bellido & Lorena Olmos & Juan A. Román-Aso, 2021. "The influence of government ideology on corruption: the impact of the Great Recession," Economia Politica: Journal of Analytical and Institutional Economics, Springer;Fondazione Edison, vol. 38(2), pages 677-708, July.
    11. Marco Pani, 2011. "Hold your nose and vote: corruption and public decisions in a representative democracy," Public Choice, Springer, vol. 148(1), pages 163-196, July.
    12. Oguzhan C. Dincer & Burak Gunalp, 2012. "Corruption And Income Inequality In The United States," Contemporary Economic Policy, Western Economic Association International, vol. 30(2), pages 283-292, April.
    13. Fakir, Adnan M.S. & Ahmad, Azraf Uddin & Hosain, K.M. Masnun & Hossain, Mostafa Rafid & Gani, Ridhim Sadman, 2017. "The comparative effect of corruption and Piketty’s second fundamental law of capitalism on inequality," Economic Analysis and Policy, Elsevier, vol. 55(C), pages 90-105.
    14. Schwuchow, Soeren, 2018. "Extractive Institutions, Choking Taxes, and War: On the (Beneficial) Impact of Inequality in Autocracies," VfS Annual Conference 2018 (Freiburg, Breisgau): Digital Economy 181530, Verein für Socialpolitik / German Economic Association.
    15. Berggren, Niclas & Bjørnskov, Christian, 2020. "Corruption, judicial accountability and inequality: Unfair procedures may benefit the worst-off," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 170(C), pages 341-354.
    16. Dridi, Mohamed, 2013. "Corruption and Economic Growth: The Transmission Channels," MPRA Paper 47873, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    17. Simplice A Asongu, 2015. "A Good Turn Deserves Another: Political Stability, Corruption and Corruption-Control," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 35(4), pages 2037-2048.
    18. Blackburn, Keith & Forgues-Puccio, Gonzalo F., 2007. "Distribution and development in a model of misgovernance," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 51(6), pages 1534-1563, August.
    19. Perera, Liyanage Devangi H. & Lee, Grace H.Y., 2013. "Have economic growth and institutional quality contributed to poverty and inequality reduction in Asia?," MPRA Paper 52763, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    20. Blaise Gnimassoun, Joseph Keneck Massil, 2019. "Determinants of corruption: can we put all countries in the same basket?," European Journal of Comparative Economics, Cattaneo University (LIUC), vol. 16(2), pages 239-276, December.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Corruption; Income inequality; Bidirectional causality; Granger-causality; Sub-Saharan Africa;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • D73 - Microeconomics - - Analysis of Collective Decision-Making - - - Bureaucracy; Administrative Processes in Public Organizations; Corruption
    • O55 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economywide Country Studies - - - Africa
    • K42 - Law and Economics - - Legal Procedure, the Legal System, and Illegal Behavior - - - Illegal Behavior and the Enforcement of Law

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:ecanpo:v:60:y:2018:i:c:p:27-42. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: http://www.journals.elsevier.com/economic-analysis-and-policy .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Catherine Liu (email available below). General contact details of provider: http://www.journals.elsevier.com/economic-analysis-and-policy .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.