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Are immigrants and girls graded worse? Results of a matching approach


  • David Kiss


Using Progress in International Reading Literacy Study 2001 and Programme for International Student Assessment 2003 data for Germany, this paper examines whether second-generation immigrants and girls are graded worse in math than comparable natives and boys, respectively. Once all grading-relevant characteristics, namely math skills and oral participation, are accounted for, pupils should obtain same school grades. Results of a matching approach and class fixed effects regressions suggest that second-generation immigrants have grade disadvantages in primary education which could bias their secondary school track choice. Regarding secondary school, most immigrants are not affected by grade discrimination and girls enrolled in upper-secondary school are systematically graded better.

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  • David Kiss, 2013. "Are immigrants and girls graded worse? Results of a matching approach," Education Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 21(5), pages 447-463, December.
  • Handle: RePEc:taf:edecon:v:21:y:2013:i:5:p:447-463 DOI: 10.1080/09645292.2011.585019

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Andreas Ammermueller, 2007. "Poor Background or Low Returns? Why Immigrant Students in Germany Perform so Poorly in the Programme for International Student Assessment," Education Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 15(2), pages 215-230.
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    Cited by:

    1. Ruhose, Jens & Schwerdt, Guido, 2016. "Does early educational tracking increase migrant-native achievement gaps? Differences-in-differences evidence across countries," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 52(C), pages 134-154.
    2. Annabelle Krause & Ulf Rinne & Simone Schüller, 2015. "Kick It Like Özil? Decomposing the Native-Migrant Education Gap," International Migration Review, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 49(3), pages 757-789, September.
    3. Thomas Breda & Son Thierry Ly, 2015. "Professors in Core Science Fields Are Not Always Biased against Women: Evidence from France," American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, American Economic Association, vol. 7(4), pages 53-75, October.
    4. De Paola, Maria & Brunello, Giorgio, 2016. "Education as a Tool for the Economic Integration of Migrants," IZA Discussion Papers 9836, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    5. Cordero, José Manuel & Cristobal, Victor & Santín, Daniel, 2017. "Causal Inference on Education Policies: A Survey of Empirical Studies Using PISA, TIMSS and PIRLS," MPRA Paper 76295, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    6. Bjorn Tyrefors Hinnerich & Erik Höglin & Magnus Johannesson, 2015. "Discrimination against students with foreign backgrounds: evidence from grading in Swedish public high schools," Education Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 23(6), pages 660-676, December.
    7. Jens Ruhose, 2013. "Bildungsleistungen von Migranten und deren Determinanten - Teil II: Primar-, Sekundar- und Tertiärbereich," ifo Schnelldienst, ifo Institute - Leibniz Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich, vol. 66(10), pages 24-38, May.
    8. Rangvid, Beatrice Schindler, 2015. "Systematic differences across evaluation schemes and educational choice," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 48(C), pages 41-55.
    9. Elke Lüdemann & Guido Schwerdt, 2013. "Migration background and educational tracking," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 26(2), pages 455-481, April.
    10. Jerrim, John & Lopez-Agudo, Luis Alejandro & Marcenaro-Gutierrez, Oscar D. & Shure, Dominique, 2017. "What Happens When Econometrics and Psychometrics Collide? An Example Using the PISA Data," IZA Discussion Papers 10847, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • C40 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric and Statistical Methods: Special Topics - - - General
    • I21 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Analysis of Education
    • J15 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Minorities, Races, Indigenous Peoples, and Immigrants; Non-labor Discrimination


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