Are Immigrants Graded Worse in Primary and Secondary Education? – Evidence for German Schools
Using PIRLS 2001 and PISA 2003 data for Germany, this paper examines whether immigrants attending primary and secondary school are graded worse in math than comparable natives. Controlling for differences in math skills, class fixed effects regressions and results of a matching approach suggest that immigrants have grade disadvantages in primary education. In Germany, track choice after primary education is mainly determined by the average of grades obtained in math and German. Hence, grade disadvantages could lead to lower level track choice. Immigrants who attend the most common secondary school tracks are not graded differently from natives.
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- Elke Lüdemann & Guido Schwerdt, 2010. "Migration Background and Educational Tracking: Is there a Double Disadvantage for Second-Generation Immigrants?," CESifo Working Paper Series 3256, CESifo Group Munich.
- Sprietsma, Maresa, 2009. "Discrimination in grading? Experimental evidence from primary school," ZEW Discussion Papers 09-074, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
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