IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/plo/pone00/0215433.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Human wellbeing outcomes of involvement in industrial crop production: Evidence from sugarcane, oil palm and jatropha sites in Ghana

Author

Listed:
  • Abubakari Ahmed
  • Eric Dompreh
  • Alexandros Gasparatos

Abstract

An extensive body of theoretical work has advocated the use of multiple human wellbeing indicators to assess the outcomes of agricultural investments in Sub-Sahara Africa (SSA). However, few studies have actually achieved it. This study investigates the human wellbeing outcomes of involvement in industrial crop production in Ghana by comparing the levels of different objective and subjective wellbeing measures for groups involved in industrial crop production as plantation workers and smallholders, and groups not involved (i.e. control groups). We use household income, adult consumption and the multidimensional poverty index (MPI) as indicators of objective wellbeing. We measure subjective wellbeing through self-reported levels of satisfaction with life, worthwhileness, happiness and anxiousness. Propensity Score Matching (PSM) analysis is used to assess whether involvement in industrial crop production increases household income and consumption. Overall, for most indicators of objective wellbeing industrial crop outgrowers, smallholders and independent smallholders are better off compared to other groups in their respective sites (in terms of mean scores), but involvement does not necessarily brings human wellbeing benefits (PSM analysis). On the other hand plantation workers are either worse off or have similar level of objective human wellbeing with control groups in their respective sites (in terms of mean scores), but involvement sometimes brings human wellbeing benefits (PSM analysis). However, workers tend to benefit from access to plantation infrastructure, which has a positive effect to their multi-dimensional poverty. In most cases the objective wellbeing measures do not correlate well with self-reported levels of subjective wellbeing. It is important to combine such indicators when evaluating the human wellbeing outcomes of agricultural investments in order to obtain a more comprehensive outlook of whether industrial crop production can become a valuable rural development strategy in SSA.

Suggested Citation

  • Abubakari Ahmed & Eric Dompreh & Alexandros Gasparatos, 2019. "Human wellbeing outcomes of involvement in industrial crop production: Evidence from sugarcane, oil palm and jatropha sites in Ghana," PLOS ONE, Public Library of Science, vol. 14(4), pages 1-33, April.
  • Handle: RePEc:plo:pone00:0215433
    DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0215433
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0215433
    Download Restriction: no

    File URL: https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article/file?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0215433&type=printable
    Download Restriction: no

    File URL: https://libkey.io/10.1371/journal.pone.0215433?utm_source=ideas
    LibKey link: if access is restricted and if your library uses this service, LibKey will redirect you to where you can use your library subscription to access this item
    ---><---

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Winford H. Masanjala, 2006. "Cash crop liberalization and poverty alleviation in Africa: evidence from Malawi," Agricultural Economics, International Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 35(2), pages 231-240, September.
    2. Gitonga, Zachary M. & De Groote, Hugo & Kassie, Menale & Tefera, Tadele, 2013. "Impact of metal silos on households’ maize storage, storage losses and food security: An application of a propensity score matching," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 43(C), pages 44-55.
    3. Balat, Jorge & Brambilla, Irene & Porto, Guido, 2009. "Realizing the gains from trade: Export crops, marketing costs, and poverty," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 78(1), pages 21-31, June.
    4. Mendola, Mariapia, 2007. "Agricultural technology adoption and poverty reduction: A propensity-score matching analysis for rural Bangladesh," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 32(3), pages 372-393, June.
    5. Shabana Mitra, 2016. "Synergies Among Monetary, Multidimensional and Subjective Poverty: Evidence from Nepal," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, vol. 125(1), pages 103-125, January.
    6. Sabina Alkire & James E. Foster & Suman Seth & Maria Emma Santos & Jose M. Roche & Paola Ballon, 2015. "Multidimensional Poverty Measurement and Analysis: Chapter 4 - Counting Approaches: Definitions, Origins, and Implementations," OPHI Working Papers 85, Queen Elizabeth House, University of Oxford.
    7. Diego Battiston & Guillermo Cruces & Luis Lopez-Calva & Maria Lugo & Maria Santos, 2013. "Income and Beyond: Multidimensional Poverty in Six Latin American Countries," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, vol. 112(2), pages 291-314, June.
    8. Sabina Alkire & James Foster, 2011. "Understandings and misunderstandings of multidimensional poverty measurement," The Journal of Economic Inequality, Springer;Society for the Study of Economic Inequality, vol. 9(2), pages 289-314, June.
    9. Schoneveld, George Christoffel, 2014. "The geographic and sectoral patterns of large-scale farmland investments in sub-Saharan Africa," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 48(C), pages 34-50.
    10. Ruth Hall, 2011. "Land grabbing in Southern Africa: the many faces of the investor rush," Review of African Political Economy, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 38(128), pages 193-214, June.
    11. Chiputwa, Brian & Spielman, David J. & Qaim, Matin, 2015. "Food Standards, Certification, and Poverty among Coffee Farmers in Uganda," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 66(C), pages 400-412.
    12. Sabina Alkire, James E. Foster, Suman Seth, Maria Emma Santos, José M. Roche and Paola Ballon, 2015. "Multidimensional Poverty Measurement and Analysis: Chapter 8 - Robustness Analysis and Statistical Inference," OPHI Working Papers ophiwp089_ch8.pdf, Queen Elizabeth House, University of Oxford.
    13. Hoque, Mohammad Mainul & Artz, Georgeanne M. & Jarboe, Darren H. & Martens, Bobby J., 2015. "Producer Participation In Biomass Markets: Farm Factors, Market Factors, And Correlated Choices," Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 47(3), pages 317-344, August.
    14. Randy Larsen & Ed Diener & Robert Emmons, 1985. "An evaluation of subjective well-being measures," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, vol. 17(1), pages 1-17, July.
    15. Mellor, John W. & Malik, Sohail J., 2017. "The Impact of Growth in Small Commercial Farm Productivity on Rural Poverty Reduction," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 91(C), pages 1-10.
    16. Gasparatos, A. & von Maltitz, G.P. & Johnson, F.X. & Lee, L. & Mathai, M. & Puppim de Oliveira, J.A. & Willis, K.J., 2015. "Biofuels in sub-Sahara Africa: Drivers, impacts and priority policy areas," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 45(C), pages 879-901.
    17. Backiny-Yetna,Prospere R. & Yacoubou Djima,Ismael & Steele,Diane E. & Backiny-Yetna,Prospere R. & Yacoubou Djima,Ismael & Steele,Diane E., 2014. "The impact of household food consumption data collection methods on poverty and inequality measures in Niger," Policy Research Working Paper Series 7090, The World Bank.
    18. Alkire, Sabina & Santos, Maria Emma, 2014. "Measuring Acute Poverty in the Developing World: Robustness and Scope of the Multidimensional Poverty Index," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 59(C), pages 251-274.
    19. Akay, Alpaslan & Martinsson, Peter, 2011. "Does relative income matter for the very poor? Evidence from rural Ethiopia," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 110(3), pages 213-215, March.
    20. Fikadu Mitiku & Yann De Mey & Jan Nyssen & Miet Maertens, 2017. "Do Private Sustainability Standards Contribute to Income Growth and Poverty Alleviation? A Comparison of Different Coffee Certification Schemes in Ethiopia," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 9(2), pages 1-21, February.
    21. Alkire, Sabina & Foster, James & Seth, Suman & Santos, Maria Emma & Roche, Jose Manuel & Ballon, Paola, 2015. "Multidimensional Poverty Measurement and Analysis," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780199689491, Decembrie.
    22. Alkire, Sabina & Foster, James, 2011. "Counting and multidimensional poverty measurement," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 95(7), pages 476-487.
    23. Silvia Terzi, 2013. "How to Integrate Macro and Micro Perspectives: An Example on Human Development and Multidimensional Poverty," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, vol. 114(3), pages 935-945, December.
    24. Emmanuel Kwablah Apiors & Aya Suzuki, 2018. "Mobile Money, Individuals’ Payments, Remittances, and Investments: Evidence from the Ashanti Region, Ghana," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 10(5), pages 1-26, May.
    25. Davis, Benjamin & Di Giuseppe, Stefania & Zezza, Alberto, 2017. "Are African households (not) leaving agriculture? Patterns of households’ income sources in rural Sub-Saharan Africa," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 67(C), pages 153-174.
    26. Ahmed, Abubakari & Kuusaana, Elias Danyi & Gasparatos, Alexandros, 2018. "The role of chiefs in large-scale land acquisitions for jatropha production in Ghana: insights from agrarian political economy," Land Use Policy, Elsevier, vol. 75(C), pages 570-582.
    27. Filip, Ondrej & Janda, Karel & Kristoufek, Ladislav & Zilberman, David, 2019. "Food versus fuel: An updated and expanded evidence," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 82(C), pages 152-166.
    28. Brandi, Clara & Cabani, Tobias & Hosang, Christoph & Schirmbeck, Sonja & Westermann, Lotte & Wiese, Hannah, 2013. "Sustainability certification in the Indonesian palm oil sector: benefits and challenges for smallholders," IDOS Studies, German Institute of Development and Sustainability (IDOS), volume 74, number 74, March.
    29. Rajeev H. Dehejia & Sadek Wahba, 2002. "Propensity Score-Matching Methods For Nonexperimental Causal Studies," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 84(1), pages 151-161, February.
    30. Oya, Carlos & Schaefer, Florian & Skalidou, Dafni, 2018. "The effectiveness of agricultural certification in developing countries: A systematic review," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 112(C), pages 282-312.
    31. van Eijck, Janske & Romijn, Henny & Balkema, Annelies & Faaij, André, 2014. "Global experience with jatropha cultivation for bioenergy: An assessment of socio-economic and environmental aspects," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 32(C), pages 869-889.
    32. Sabina Alkire & James E. Foster & Suman Seth & Maria Emma Santos & Jose M. Roche & Paola Ballon, 2015. "Multidimensional Poverty Measurement and Analysis: Chapter 8 - Robustness Analysis and Statistical Inference," OPHI Working Papers 89, Queen Elizabeth House, University of Oxford.
    33. Mwangi, Joseph Kanyua & Crewett, Wibke, 2019. "The impact of irrigation on small-scale African indigenous vegetable growers’ market access in peri-urban Kenya," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 212(C), pages 295-305.
    34. Michael Lechner, 2002. "Some practical issues in the evaluation of heterogeneous labour market programmes by matching methods," Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Series A, Royal Statistical Society, vol. 165(1), pages 59-82.
    35. Ed Diener & Shigehiro Oishi & Louis Tay, 2018. "Advances in subjective well-being research," Nature Human Behaviour, Nature, vol. 2(4), pages 253-260, April.
    36. Sabina Alkire, James E. Foster, Suman Seth, Maria Emma Santos, José M. Roche and Paola Ballon, 2015. "Multidimensional Poverty Measurement and Analysis: Chapter 5 - The Alkire-Foster Counting Methodology," OPHI Working Papers ophiwp086_ch5.pdf, Queen Elizabeth House, University of Oxford.
    37. Geeta Gandhi Kingdon & John Knight, 2006. "Subjective well-being poverty vs. Income poverty and capabilities poverty?," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 42(7), pages 1199-1224.
    38. Udaya Wagle, 2014. "The Counting-Based Measurement of Multidimensional Poverty: The Focus on Economic Resources, Inner Capabilities, and Relational Resources in the United States," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, vol. 115(1), pages 223-240, January.
    39. Graham Von Maltitz & Alexandros Gasparatos & Christo Fabricius, 2014. "The Rise, Fall and Potential Resilience Benefits of Jatropha in Southern Africa," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 6(6), pages 1-29, June.
    40. Backiny-Yetna, Prospère & Steele, Diane & Yacoubou Djima, Ismael, 2017. "The impact of household food consumption data collection methods on poverty and inequality measures in Niger," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 72(C), pages 7-19.
    41. World Bank, 2017. "Monitoring Global Poverty," World Bank Publications - Books, The World Bank Group, number 25141, December.
    42. Richard Disney, 1976. "Some Measures of Rural Income Distribution in Ethiopia," Development and Change, International Institute of Social Studies, vol. 7(1), pages 35-44, January.
    43. Sabina Alkire & James E. Foster & Suman Seth & Maria Emma Santos & Jose M. Roche & Paola Ballon, 2015. "Multidimensional Poverty Measurement and Analysis: Chapter 5 - The Alkire-Foster Counting Methodology," OPHI Working Papers 86, Queen Elizabeth House, University of Oxford.
    44. Ahmed, Abubakari & Campion, Benjamin Betey & Gasparatos, Alexandros, 2017. "Biofuel development in Ghana: policies of expansion and drivers of failure in the jatropha sector," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 70(C), pages 133-149.
    45. Biewen, Martin, 2002. "Bootstrap inference for inequality, mobility and poverty measurement," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 108(2), pages 317-342, June.
    46. Mitiku, Fikadu & de Mey, Yann & Nyssen, Jan & Maertens, Miet, 2017. "Do Private Sustainability Standards Contribute to Poverty Alleviation? A Comparison of Different Coffee Certification Schemes in Ethiopia," Working Papers 253589, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Centre for Agricultural and Food Economics.
    47. A. Atkinson, 2003. "Multidimensional Deprivation: Contrasting Social Welfare and Counting Approaches," The Journal of Economic Inequality, Springer;Society for the Study of Economic Inequality, vol. 1(1), pages 51-65, April.
    48. Kuchler, Magdalena & Linnér, Björn-Ola, 2012. "Challenging the food vs. fuel dilemma: Genealogical analysis of the biofuel discourse pursued by international organizations," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(5), pages 581-588.
    49. Jonathan Haughton & Shahidur R. Khandker, 2009. "Handbook on Poverty and Inequality," World Bank Publications - Books, The World Bank Group, number 11985, December.
    50. Brian Chin, 2010. "Income, health, and well-being in rural Malawi," Demographic Research, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany, vol. 23(35), pages 997-1030.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Ahmed, Abubakari & Gasparatos, Alexandros, 2020. "Multi-dimensional energy poverty patterns around industrial crop projects in Ghana: Enhancing the energy poverty alleviation potential of rural development strategies," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 137(C).
    2. Marcin Pawel Jarzebski & Abubakari Ahmed & Yaw Agyeman Boafo & Boubacar Siddighi Balde & Linda Chinangwa & Osamu Saito & Graham Maltitz & Alexandros Gasparatos, 2020. "Food security impacts of industrial crop production in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review of the impact mechanisms," Food Security: The Science, Sociology and Economics of Food Production and Access to Food, Springer;The International Society for Plant Pathology, vol. 12(1), pages 105-135, February.
    3. Ahmed, Abubakari, 2021. "Biofuel feedstock plantations closure and land abandonment in Ghana: New directions for land studies in Sub-Saharan Africa," Land Use Policy, Elsevier, vol. 107(C).
    4. Tabe-Ojong, Martin Paul Jr. & Ordway, Elsa M. & Nkongho, Raymond N. & Molua, Ernest L., 2022. "Oil palm expansion among non-industrial producers in Cameroon: Potentials for synergy between agro-economic gains and ecological safeguards," Forest Policy and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 135(C).
    5. Ahmed, Abubakari & Gasparatos, Alexandros, 2020. "Reconfiguration of land politics in community resource management areas in Ghana: Insights from the Avu Lagoon CREMA," Land Use Policy, Elsevier, vol. 97(C).
    6. Marije Schaafsma & Ilda Dreoni & Lacour Mody Ayompe & Benis Egoh & Dewa Putu Ekayana & Arilson Favareto & Sonny Mumbunan & Louise Nakagawa & Jonas Ngouhouo‐poufoun & Marieke Sassen & Thiago Kanashiro , 2023. "A framework to understand the social impacts of agricultural trade," Sustainable Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 31(1), pages 138-150, February.
    7. Bezabih, Mintewab & Teklewold, Hailemariam & Zewdie, Samuel A., 2024. "The influence of large scale land acquisition on smallholder farming productivity - the case of Zambia," World Development Perspectives, Elsevier, vol. 33(C).

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Ahmed, Abubakari & Gasparatos, Alexandros, 2020. "Multi-dimensional energy poverty patterns around industrial crop projects in Ghana: Enhancing the energy poverty alleviation potential of rural development strategies," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 137(C).
    2. Álvaro José Altamirano Montoya & Karla Maria Damiano Teixeira, 2017. "Multidimensional Poverty in Nicaragua: Are Female-Headed Households Better Off?," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, vol. 132(3), pages 1037-1063, July.
    3. Boubacar Siddighi Balde & Mamady Diawara & Cristiano M. Rossignoli & Alexandros Gasparatos, 2019. "Smallholder-Based Oil Palm and Rubber Production in the Forest Region of Guinea: An Exploratory Analysis of Household Food Security Outcomes," Agriculture, MDPI, vol. 9(2), pages 1-19, February.
    4. Espinoza-Delgado, José & Klasen, Stephan, 2018. "Gender and multidimensional poverty in Nicaragua: An individual based approach," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 110(C), pages 466-491.
    5. Ahmed, Abubakari, 2021. "Biofuel feedstock plantations closure and land abandonment in Ghana: New directions for land studies in Sub-Saharan Africa," Land Use Policy, Elsevier, vol. 107(C).
    6. Burhan Can Karahasan & Fırat Bilgel, 2021. "The Topography and Sources of Multidimensional Poverty in Turkey," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, vol. 154(2), pages 413-445, April.
    7. Nick Bailey & Anne-Catherine Guio, 2022. "Adaptive Deprivation Scales in a Multi-National Context: The European Child Deprivation Indicators," Child Indicators Research, Springer;The International Society of Child Indicators (ISCI), vol. 15(6), pages 2335-2362, December.
    8. Nicolas Barrantes & Jhonatan Clausen, 2022. "Does Multidimensional Poverty Affect Depression? Evidence from Peru," Progress in Development Studies, , vol. 22(2), pages 107-129, April.
    9. Carmelo García-Pérez & Yolanda González-González & Mercedes Prieto-Alaiz, 2017. "Identifying the Multidimensional Poor in Developed Countries Using Relative Thresholds: An Application to Spanish Data," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, vol. 131(1), pages 291-303, March.
    10. Roberto Angulo, 2016. "From Multidimensional Poverty Measurement to Multisector Public Policy for Poverty Reduction: Lessons from the Colombian Case," OPHI Working Papers ophiwp102_1.pdf, Queen Elizabeth House, University of Oxford.
    11. Yadira Diaz, 2015. "Differences in needs and multidimensional deprivation measurement," Working Papers 387, ECINEQ, Society for the Study of Economic Inequality.
    12. Marcin Pawel Jarzebski & Abubakari Ahmed & Yaw Agyeman Boafo & Boubacar Siddighi Balde & Linda Chinangwa & Osamu Saito & Graham Maltitz & Alexandros Gasparatos, 2020. "Food security impacts of industrial crop production in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review of the impact mechanisms," Food Security: The Science, Sociology and Economics of Food Production and Access to Food, Springer;The International Society for Plant Pathology, vol. 12(1), pages 105-135, February.
    13. Espinoza-Delgado, José & Silber, Jacques, 2018. "Multi-dimensional poverty among adults in Central America and gender differences in the three I’s of poverty: Applying inequality sensitive poverty measures with ordinal variables," MPRA Paper 88750, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    14. Pinaki Das & Bibek Paria & Shama Firdaush, 2021. "Juxtaposing Consumption Poverty and Multidimensional Poverty: A Study in Indian Context," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, vol. 153(2), pages 469-501, January.
    15. Alkire, Sabina & Roche, José Manuel & Vaz, Ana, 2017. "Changes Over Time in Multidimensional Poverty: Methodology and Results for 34 Countries," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 94(C), pages 232-249.
    16. Wulung Hanandita & Gindo Tampubolon, 2016. "Multidimensional Poverty in Indonesia: Trend Over the Last Decade (2003–2013)," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, vol. 128(2), pages 559-587, September.
    17. Nicolai Suppa, 2021. "Walls of glass. Measuring deprivation in social participation," The Journal of Economic Inequality, Springer;Society for the Study of Economic Inequality, vol. 19(2), pages 385-411, June.
    18. Sabina Alkire, Mauricio Apablaza, 2016. "Multidimensional Poverty in Europe 2006-2012: Illustrating a Methodology," OPHI Working Papers 74, Queen Elizabeth House, University of Oxford.
    19. Loaiza Quintero, Osmar Leandro & Muñetón Santa, Guberney & Vanegas, Juan Gabriel, 2018. "Forced displacement and Multidimensional Poverty in Antioquia, Colombia: an assessment by means of a Seemingly Unrelated Regression," INVESTIGACIONES REGIONALES - Journal of REGIONAL RESEARCH, Asociación Española de Ciencia Regional, issue 41, pages 167-190.
    20. Alkire, Sabina & Nogales, Ricardo & Quinn, Natalie Naïri & Suppa, Nicolai, 2023. "On track or not? Projecting the global Multidimensional Poverty Index," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 165(C).

    More about this item

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:plo:pone00:0215433. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: plosone (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://journals.plos.org/plosone/ .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service. RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.