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Agri-Environmental Program Compliance in a Heterogeneous Landscape

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  • Jussi Lankoski

    ()

  • Erik Lichtenberg

    ()

  • Markku Ollikainen

    ()

Abstract

Heterogeneity of agricultural landscapes may necessitate the use of spatially targeted instrument combinations to implement the social optimum. But compliance with these policies may require costly enforcement. This paper examines the design of agri-environmental policies featuring two of the most commonly used instruments, reductions in fertilizer application rates and installation of riparian buffers. While compliance with buffer strip requirements is verifiable at negligible cost, fertilizer application is only verifiable through costly monitoring. We derive optimal subsidies for fertilizer reduction and buffer strip set-asides and enforcement strategies for the cases of low and excessive monitoring costs. An empirical simulation model suggests that enforceable policies can come close to replicating socially optimal crop production, nitrogen runoff, and overall welfare without requiring increases in overall subsidy expenditures, at least under conditions characteristic of Scandinavia. Sensitivity analysis suggests that these conclusions may carry over to areas with higher overall land quality as well.
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Suggested Citation

  • Jussi Lankoski & Erik Lichtenberg & Markku Ollikainen, 2010. "Agri-Environmental Program Compliance in a Heterogeneous Landscape," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 47(1), pages 1-22, September.
  • Handle: RePEc:kap:enreec:v:47:y:2010:i:1:p:1-22 DOI: 10.1007/s10640-010-9361-x
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Malik, Arun S, 1992. "Enforcement Costs and the Choice of Policy Instruments for Controlling Pollution," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 30(4), pages 714-721, October.
    2. Steven Shavell & A. Mitchell Polinsky, 2000. "The Economic Theory of Public Enforcement of Law," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, pages 45-76.
    3. Lichtenberg, Erik, 2004. "Are Green Payments Good for the Environment?," Agricultural and Resource Economics Review, Northeastern Agricultural and Resource Economics Association, vol. 33(1), April.
    4. Jussi Lankoski & Markku Ollikainen, 2003. "Agri-environmental externalities: a framework for designing targeted policies," European Review of Agricultural Economics, Foundation for the European Review of Agricultural Economics, vol. 30(1), pages 51-75, March.
    5. Gary S. Becker, 1974. "Crime and Punishment: An Economic Approach," NBER Chapters,in: Essays in the Economics of Crime and Punishment, pages 1-54 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    6. Per Kristian Rørstad & Arild Vatn & Valborg Kvakkestad, 2007. "Why do transaction costs of agricultural policies vary?," Agricultural Economics, International Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 36(1), pages 1-11, January.
    7. Athanasios Kampas & Ben White, 2004. "Administrative Costs and Instrument Choice for Stochastic Non-point Source Pollutants," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 27(2), pages 109-133, February.
    8. Harford, Jon D., 1987. "Self-reporting of pollution and the firm's behavior under imperfectly enforceable regulations," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 14(3), pages 293-303, September.
    9. Downing, Paul B. & Watson, William Jr., 1974. "The economics of enforcing air pollution controls," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 1(3), pages 219-236, November.
    10. Agnar Sandmo, 2002. "Efficient Environmental Policy with Imperfect Compliance," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 23(1), pages 85-103, September.
    11. Chongwoo Choe & Iain Fraser, 1999. "Compliance Monitoring and Agri-Environmental Policy," Journal of Agricultural Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 50(3), pages 468-487.
    12. Rob Fraser, 2002. "Moral Hazard and Risk Management in Agri-environmental Policy," Journal of Agricultural Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 53(3), pages 475-487.
    13. Lichtenberg, Erik, 2002. "Agriculture and the environment," Handbook of Agricultural Economics,in: B. L. Gardner & G. C. Rausser (ed.), Handbook of Agricultural Economics, edition 1, volume 2, chapter 23, pages 1249-1313 Elsevier.
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    15. Harford, Jon D., 1978. "Firm behavior under imperfectly enforceable pollution standards and taxes," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 5(1), pages 26-43, March.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Renan-Ulrich Goetz & Yolanda Martínez, 2013. "Nonpoint source pollution and two-part instruments," Environmental Economics and Policy Studies, Springer;Society for Environmental Economics and Policy Studies - SEEPS, vol. 15(3), pages 237-258, July.
    2. Lankoski, Jussi E. & Lichtenberg, Erik & Ollikainen, Markku, 2008. "Agri-environmental program compliance under heterogeneous conditions," 2008 International Congress, August 26-29, 2008, Ghent, Belgium 44381, European Association of Agricultural Economists.
    3. Lankoski, Jussi, 2015. "Cost-effectiveness of Alternative Payment and Auction Designs for Biodiversity Conservation in Agriculture," 2015 Conference, August 9-14, 2015, Milan, Italy 212031, International Association of Agricultural Economists.
    4. Guyomard, Herve & Lankoski, Jussi E. & Ollikainen, Markku, 2005. "Impacts of Agri-Environmental Policies on Land Allocation and Prices," 2005 International Congress, August 23-27, 2005, Copenhagen, Denmark 24466, European Association of Agricultural Economists.
    5. Vincent Martinet, 2012. "Effect of soil heterogeneity on the welfare economics of biofuel policies," Working Papers 2012/01, INRA, Economie Publique.
    6. Juvancic, Luka & Travnikar, Tanja & Glavan, Matjaz & Cvejic, Rozalija & Pintar, Marina, 2012. "Targeting And Spatial Impacts Of Agri-Environmental Support – Spatial Econometric Analysis Of Agri–Environmental Measures In Slovenia," 132nd Seminar, October 25-27, 2012, Skopje, Republic of Macedonia 139491, European Association of Agricultural Economists.
    7. Cho, Wonjoo & Blandford, David, 2015. "Bilateral information asymmetry and irreversible practice adoption through agri-environmental policy: an application to peat land retirement in Norway," 89th Annual Conference, April 13-15, 2015, Warwick University, Coventry, UK 204212, Agricultural Economics Society.
    8. repec:wsi:wepxxx:v:03:y:2017:i:02:n:s2382624x16500338 is not listed on IDEAS

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Nutrient runoff; Monitoring; Enforcement; Fertilizer; Riparian buffers; Q15; Q18; H23;

    JEL classification:

    • Q15 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Agriculture - - - Land Ownership and Tenure; Land Reform; Land Use; Irrigation; Agriculture and Environment
    • Q18 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Agriculture - - - Agricultural Policy; Food Policy
    • H23 - Public Economics - - Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue - - - Externalities; Redistributive Effects; Environmental Taxes and Subsidies

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