IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/ijb/journl/v7y2008i3p181-198.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Nominal Exchange Rates and Price Convergence in the West African Monetary Zone

Author

Listed:
  • Paul Alagidede

    (Stirling Management School, Division of Economics, University of Stirling, U.K.)

  • George Tweneboah

    (School of Management, University of Leicester, U.K.)

  • Anokye M. Adam

    (School of Management, University of Leicester, U.K.)

Abstract

We investigate nominal exchange rates and nominal price convergence in the West African Monetary Zone. Using data for the first quarter of 1974 through the first quarter of 2007, we find that real exchange rates in The Gambia, Ghana, Nigeria, and Sierra Leone follow a random walk. Further, we show that nominal exchange rates and nominal prices adjust at different speeds to achieve long-run purchasing power parity, with the former adjusting faster than the latter. Finally, we argue that the success (or otherwise) of a second monetary zone in West Africa depends on well coordinated macroeconomic policies and on minor divergence in prices and exchange rates to eliminate excessive arbitrage profits that may arise.

Suggested Citation

  • Paul Alagidede & George Tweneboah & Anokye M. Adam, 2008. "Nominal Exchange Rates and Price Convergence in the West African Monetary Zone," International Journal of Business and Economics, School of Management Development, Feng Chia University, Taichung, Taiwan, vol. 7(3), pages 181-198, December.
  • Handle: RePEc:ijb:journl:v:7:y:2008:i:3:p:181-198
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://ijbe.fcu.edu.tw/assets/ijbe/past_issue/No.07-3/pdf/vol_7-3-1.pdf
    Download Restriction: no

    File URL: https://ijbe.fcu.edu.tw/assets/ijbe/past_issue/No.07-3/abstract/01.html
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. James R. Lothian & Mark P. Taylor, 2008. "Real Exchange Rates Over the Past Two Centuries: How Important is the Harrod‐Balassa‐Samuelson Effect?," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 118(532), pages 1742-1763, October.
    2. MacKinnon, James G & Haug, Alfred A & Michelis, Leo, 1999. "Numerical Distribution Functions of Likelihood Ratio Tests for Cointegration," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 14(5), pages 563-577, Sept.-Oct.
    3. Joseph Kargbo, 2003. "Food prices and long-run purchasing power parity in Africa," Development Southern Africa, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 20(3), pages 321-336.
    4. Caner, M. & Kilian, L., 2001. "Size distortions of tests of the null hypothesis of stationarity: evidence and implications for the PPP debate," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 20(5), pages 639-657, October.
    5. Kwiatkowski, Denis & Phillips, Peter C. B. & Schmidt, Peter & Shin, Yongcheol, 1992. "Testing the null hypothesis of stationarity against the alternative of a unit root : How sure are we that economic time series have a unit root?," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 54(1-3), pages 159-178.
    6. Joseph Kargbo, 2006. "Purchasing Power Parity and real exchange rate behaviour in Africa," Applied Financial Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 16(1-2), pages 169-183.
    7. Lanne, Markku & Lutkepohl, Helmut, 2002. "Unit root tests for time series with level shifts: a comparison of different proposals," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 75(1), pages 109-114, March.
    8. Saikkonen, Pentti & Lütkepohl, Helmut, 2002. "Testing For A Unit Root In A Time Series With A Level Shift At Unknown Time," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 18(2), pages 313-348, April.
    9. Lucio Sarno & Mark P. Taylor, 2002. "Purchasing Power Parity and the Real Exchange Rate," IMF Staff Papers, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 49(1), pages 1-5.
    10. Holmes, Mark J, 2000. "Does Purchasing Power Parity Hold in African Less Developed Countries? Evidence from a Panel Data Unit Root Test," Journal of African Economies, Centre for the Study of African Economies, vol. 9(1), pages 63-78, March.
    11. Abuaf, Niso & Jorion, Philippe, 1990. "Purchasing Power Parity in the Long Run," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 45(1), pages 157-174, March.
    12. Kim, Yoonbai, 1990. "Purchasing power parity : Another look at the long-run data," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 32(4), pages 339-344, April.
    13. Froot, Kenneth A. & Rogoff, Kenneth, 1995. "Perspectives on PPP and long-run real exchange rates," Handbook of International Economics, in: G. M. Grossman & K. Rogoff (ed.), Handbook of International Economics, edition 1, volume 3, chapter 32, pages 1647-1688, Elsevier.
    14. Elliott, Graham & Rothenberg, Thomas J & Stock, James H, 1996. "Efficient Tests for an Autoregressive Unit Root," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 64(4), pages 813-836, July.
    15. Cheung, Yin-Wong & Lai, Kon S., 1993. "Long-run purchasing power parity during the recent float," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(1-2), pages 181-192, February.
    16. Frenkel, Jacob A., 1978. "Purchasing power parity : Doctrinal perspective and evidence from the 1920s," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 8(2), pages 169-191, May.
    17. Granger, C. W. J., 1988. "Some recent development in a concept of causality," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 39(1-2), pages 199-211.
    18. Mr. Ronald MacDonald & Mr. Luca A Ricci, 2001. "PPP and the Balassa Samuelson Effect: The Role of the Distribution Sector," IMF Working Papers 2001/038, International Monetary Fund.
    19. Hakkio, Craig S., 1984. "A re-examination of purchasing power parity : A multi-country and multi-period study," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 17(3-4), pages 265-277, November.
    20. G. M. Grossman & K. Rogoff (ed.), 1995. "Handbook of International Economics," Handbook of International Economics, Elsevier, edition 1, volume 3, number 3.
    21. Rudiger Dornbusch, 1980. "Exchange Rate Economics: Where Do We Stand?," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 11(1, Tenth ), pages 143-206.
    22. World Bank, 2006. "World Development Indicators 2006," World Bank Publications - Books, The World Bank Group, number 8151, December.
    23. Adler, Michael & Lehmann, Bruce, 1983. "Deviations from Purchasing Power Parity in the Long Run," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 38(5), pages 1471-1487, December.
    24. Lutkepohl, Helmut & Reimers, Hans-Eggert, 1992. "Impulse response analysis of cointegrated systems," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 16(1), pages 53-78, January.
    25. Lanne, Markku & Lütkepohl, Helmut & Saikkonen, Pentti, 1999. "Comparison of unit root tests for time series with level shifts," SFB 373 Discussion Papers 1999,88, Humboldt University of Berlin, Interdisciplinary Research Project 373: Quantification and Simulation of Economic Processes.
    26. William Poole, 2007. "Industry councils bring firsthand insights to our regional economic outlook," The Regional Economist, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, issue Jan, pages 1-3.
    27. Peter Liu, 1992. "Purchasing power parity in Latin America: A co-integration analysis," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer;Institut für Weltwirtschaft (Kiel Institute for the World Economy), vol. 128(4), pages 662-680, December.
    28. K. Hassanain, 2004. "Purchasing Power Parity And Cross‐Sectional Dependency," South African Journal of Economics, Economic Society of South Africa, vol. 72(2), pages 238-257, June.
    29. Joseph Kargbo, 2000. "Impacts of monetary and macroeconomic factors on food prices in eastern and southern Africa," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 32(11), pages 1373-1389.
    30. Bela Balassa, 1964. "The Purchasing-Power Parity Doctrine: A Reappraisal," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 72(6), pages 584-584.
    31. Davidson, Russell & MacKinnon, James G., 1993. "Estimation and Inference in Econometrics," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780195060119, Decembrie.
    32. Lawrence H. Officer, 1982. "The Purchasing-Power-Parity Theory of Gerrard de Malynes," History of Political Economy, Duke University Press, vol. 14(2), pages 256-259, Summer.
    33. Pesaran, H. Hashem & Shin, Yongcheol, 1998. "Generalized impulse response analysis in linear multivariate models," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 58(1), pages 17-29, January.
    34. Dornbusch, Rudiger, 1976. "Expectations and Exchange Rate Dynamics," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 84(6), pages 1161-1176, December.
    35. ODUSOLA, Ayodele & AKINLO, Anthony, 2001. "Output, Inflation, And Exchange Rate In Developing Countries: An Application To Nigeria," UNDP Africa Economists Working Papers 307343, United Nations Development Programme (UNDP).
    36. Markku Lanne & Helmut Lütkepohl & Pentti Saikkonen, 2002. "Comparison of unit root tests for time series with level shifts," Journal of Time Series Analysis, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 23(6), pages 667-685, November.
    37. Pesaran, M. Hashem & Shin, Yongcheol, 1996. "Cointegration and speed of convergence to equilibrium," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 71(1-2), pages 117-143.
    38. Mr. Noureddine Krichene, 1998. "Purchasing Power Parities in Five East African Countries: Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania, and Uganda," IMF Working Papers 1998/148, International Monetary Fund.
    39. Johansen, Soren, 1991. "Estimation and Hypothesis Testing of Cointegration Vectors in Gaussian Vector Autoregressive Models," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 59(6), pages 1551-1580, November.
    40. Joseph M. Kargbo, 2004. "Purchasing Power Parity And Exchange Rate Policy Reforms In Africa," South African Journal of Economics, Economic Society of South Africa, vol. 72(2), pages 258-281, June.
    41. Charles Engel & James Morley, 2000. "The Adjustment of Prices and the Adjustment of the Exchange Rate," Working Papers 0009, University of Washington, Department of Economics.
    42. Joseph Kargbo, 2009. "Financial integration and parity reversion in real exchange rates of emerging markets," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 16(1), pages 29-33.
    43. Krugman, Paul R., 1978. "Purchasing power parity and exchange rates : Another look at the evidence," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 8(3), pages 397-407, August.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Njindan Iyke, Bernard, 2015. "Real Exchange Rates Persistence in the West African Monetary Zone: A Revisit of the PPP Puzzle," MPRA Paper 67282, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    2. Simplice Asongu, 2014. "REER Imbalances and Macroeconomic Adjustments in the Proposed West African Monetary Union," South African Journal of Economics, Economic Society of South Africa, vol. 82(2), pages 276-289, June.
    3. Paul Alagidede & George Tweneboah, 2015. "On the Sustainability and Synchronization of Fiscal Policy in Latin America," Latin American Journal of Economics-formerly Cuadernos de Economía, Instituto de Economía. Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile., vol. 52(2), pages 213-240, November.
    4. Raji, Rahman Olanrewaju, 2012. "REAL Exchange Rate Misalignment and Economic Performance of WEST AFRICAN MONETARY ZONE:Implications for macroeconomic unionisation," MPRA Paper 37385, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    5. Hwa-Taek Lee & Gawon Yoon, 2013. "Does purchasing power parity hold sometimes? Regime switching in real exchange rates," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 45(16), pages 2279-2294, June.
    6. Siaw Frimpong, 2022. "On the Macroeconomic Conditions of West African Economies to External Uncertainty Shocks," Risks, MDPI, vol. 10(7), pages 1-27, July.
    7. Gilles Duffrenot & Kimiko Sugimoto, 2010. "Pegging the future West African single currency in regard to internal/external competitiveness: a counterfactual analysis," William Davidson Institute Working Papers Series wp974, William Davidson Institute at the University of Michigan.
    8. Peterson Owusu Junior & Anokye M. Adam & George Tweneboah, 2017. "Co-movement of real exchange rates in the West African Monetary Zone," Cogent Economics & Finance, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 5(1), pages 1351807-135, January.
    9. Adu, Raymond & Litsios, Ioannis & Baimbridge, Mark, 2019. "Real exchange rate and asymmetric shocks in the West African Monetary Zone (WAMZ)," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 59(C), pages 232-249.
    10. Seyram P. Kumah, 2024. "Cryptocurrency and African fiat currencies: A peaceful coexistence?," Economic Notes, Banca Monte dei Paschi di Siena SpA, vol. 53(1), February.
    11. Anokye M. Adam & Kwabena Kyei & Simiso Moyo & Ryan Gill & Emmanuel N. Gyamfi, 2022. "Multifrequency network for SADC exchange rate markets using EEMD-based DCCA," Journal of Economics and Finance, Springer;Academy of Economics and Finance, vol. 46(1), pages 145-166, January.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Arize, Augustine C. & Malindretos, John & Nam, Kiseok, 2010. "Cointegration, dynamic structure, and the validity of purchasing power parity in African countries," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 19(4), pages 755-768, October.
    2. Joseph M. Kargbo, 2004. "Purchasing Power Parity And Exchange Rate Policy Reforms In Africa," South African Journal of Economics, Economic Society of South Africa, vol. 72(2), pages 258-281, June.
    3. Marcos José Dal Bianco, 2008. "Argentinean real exchange rate 1900-2006, test purchasing power parity theory," Estudios de Economia, University of Chile, Department of Economics, vol. 35(1 Year 20), pages 33-64, June.
    4. Cheung, Yin-Wong & Lai, Kon S. & Bergman, Michael, 2004. "Dissecting the PPP puzzle: the unconventional roles of nominal exchange rate and price adjustments," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 64(1), pages 135-150, October.
    5. Lucio Sarno & Mark P. Taylor, 2002. "Purchasing Power Parity and the Real Exchange Rate," IMF Staff Papers, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 49(1), pages 1-5.
    6. Froot, Kenneth A. & Rogoff, Kenneth, 1995. "Perspectives on PPP and long-run real exchange rates," Handbook of International Economics, in: G. M. Grossman & K. Rogoff (ed.), Handbook of International Economics, edition 1, volume 3, chapter 32, pages 1647-1688, Elsevier.
    7. Njindan Iyke, Bernard, 2015. "Real Exchange Rates Persistence in the West African Monetary Zone: A Revisit of the PPP Puzzle," MPRA Paper 67282, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    8. César Calderón & Roberto Duncan, 2003. "Purchasing power parity in an emerging market economy: a long- span study for Chile," Estudios de Economia, University of Chile, Department of Economics, vol. 30(1 Year 20), pages 103-132, June.
    9. Jean-Francois Hoarau, 2010. "Does long-run purchasing power parity hold in Eastern and Southern African countries? Evidence from panel data stationary tests with multiple structural breaks," International Journal of Finance & Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 15(4), pages 307-315.
    10. John D. Levendis, 2018. "Time Series Econometrics," Springer Texts in Business and Economics, Springer, number 978-3-319-98282-3, June.
    11. Alan M. Taylor, 2002. "A Century Of Purchasing-Power Parity," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 84(1), pages 139-150, February.
    12. Melisso Boschi, 2012. "Long- and short-run determinants of capital flows to Latin America: a long-run structural GVAR model," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 43(3), pages 1041-1071, December.
    13. Mohsen Bahmani‐Oskooee & Scott W. Hegerty, 2009. "Purchasing Power Parity In Less‐Developed And Transition Economies: A Review Paper," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 23(4), pages 617-658, September.
    14. Njindan Iyke , Bernard & Odhiambo, Nicholas M., 2015. "A re-examination of long-run Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) hypothesis: the case of two Southern African countries," Working Papers 18980, University of South Africa, Department of Economics.
    15. Kim, Hyeongwoo, 2012. "VECM estimations of the PPP reversion rate revisited: The conventional role of relative price adjustment restored," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 34(1), pages 223-238.
    16. Kargbo, Joseph M., 2003. "Cointegration Tests of Purchasing Power Parity in Africa," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 31(10), pages 1673-1685, October.
    17. Alan M. Taylor & Mark P. Taylor, 2004. "The Purchasing Power Parity Debate," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 18(4), pages 135-158, Fall.
    18. Dimitrios Malliaropulos & Ekaterini Panopoulou & Nikitas Pittis & Theologos Pantelidis, 2006. "The Contribution of Growth and Interest Rate Differentials to the Persistence of Real Exchange Rates," The Institute for International Integration Studies Discussion Paper Series iiisdp135, IIIS.
    19. Byrne, Joseph P. & Nagayasu, Jun, 2010. "Structural breaks in the real exchange rate and real interest rate relationship," Global Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 21(2), pages 138-151.
    20. E. N. Gyamfi & E. F. Appiah, 2019. "Further evidence on the validity of purchasing power parity in selected African countries," Journal of Economics and Finance, Springer;Academy of Economics and Finance, vol. 43(2), pages 330-343, April.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    purchasing power parity; real exchange rate stationarity; convergence; West African Monetary Zone;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • F31 - International Economics - - International Finance - - - Foreign Exchange
    • C32 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables - - - Time-Series Models; Dynamic Quantile Regressions; Dynamic Treatment Effect Models; Diffusion Processes; State Space Models

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:ijb:journl:v:7:y:2008:i:3:p:181-198. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Szu-Hsien Ho (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/cbfcutw.html .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service. RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.