IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

Multifrequency network for SADC exchange rate markets using EEMD-based DCCA


  • Anokye M. Adam

    (University of Venda
    University of Cape Coast)

  • Kwabena Kyei

    (University of Venda)

  • Simiso Moyo

    (University of Venda)

  • Ryan Gill

    (University of Louisville)

  • Emmanuel N. Gyamfi

    (Ghana Institute of Management and Public Administration)


We used the detrended cross-correlation analysis (DCCA) method based on ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) to study the dynamic interdependence structure of daily domestic currency to US dollar exchange rates of 15 Southern African Development Community (SADC) exchange rate markets. We first decompose all series into intrinsic mode functions using EEMD and reconstruct the series into three frequency modes: high-, medium- and low frequency, and residue. The DCCA method was used to analyze the cross-correlation between the various frequencies, residues and original series. These were meant to address the nonlinearity and nonstationarity in observed exchange rate data. Finally, we formed a correlation network from the cross-correlation coefficients in all cases which revealed rich than would have been obtained from the original series. We observed similarities between the nature of cross-correlation between high-frequency series mimic the original series and the significant cross-correlation among the long-term trend of most SADC countries exchange rate markets. The innovation of this paper is to combine EEMD with DCCA to study the multifrequency cross-correlations of exchange rate markets, which can provide policymakers a deeper understanding of the dynamics of exchange rate markets toward the formation of currency unions.

Suggested Citation

  • Anokye M. Adam & Kwabena Kyei & Simiso Moyo & Ryan Gill & Emmanuel N. Gyamfi, 2022. "Multifrequency network for SADC exchange rate markets using EEMD-based DCCA," Journal of Economics and Finance, Springer;Academy of Economics and Finance, vol. 46(1), pages 145-166, January.
  • Handle: RePEc:spr:jecfin:v:46:y:2022:i:1:d:10.1007_s12197-021-09560-w
    DOI: 10.1007/s12197-021-09560-w

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    File Function: Abstract
    Download Restriction: Access to the full text of the articles in this series is restricted.

    File URL:
    LibKey link: if access is restricted and if your library uses this service, LibKey will redirect you to where you can use your library subscription to access this item

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Cheung, Yin-Wong & Ng, Lilian K., 1996. "A causality-in-variance test and its application to financial market prices," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 72(1-2), pages 33-48.
    2. Prass, Taiane Schaedler & Pumi, Guilherme, 2021. "On the behavior of the DFA and DCCA in trend-stationary processes," Journal of Multivariate Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 182(C).
    3. Wolassa Lawisso Kumo, 2011. "Working Paper 130 - Growth and Macroeconomic Convergence in Southern Africa," Working Paper Series 314, African Development Bank.
    4. Mulatu F. Zerihun & Marthinus C. Breitenbach & Francis Kemegue, 2014. "A Greek Wedding In SADC? Testing For Structural Symmetry Towards SADC Monetary Integration," The African Finance Journal, Africagrowth Institute, vol. 16(2), pages 16-33.
    5. Mulatu Fekadu Zerihun & Martinus C. Breitenbach & Francis Kemegue, 2016. "Exploring exchange rate based policy coordination in SADC," Studies in Economics and Finance, Emerald Group Publishing Limited, vol. 33(4), pages 576-594, October.
    6. Sebastian Edwards, 2006. "Monetary unions, external shocks and economic performance: A Latin American perspective," International Economics and Economic Policy, Springer, vol. 3(3), pages 225-247, December.
    7. EPHREM HABTEMICHAEL REDDA & Paul-Francious Muzindusti, 2017. "Does SADC constitute an optimum currency area? Evidence from generalised purchasing power parity," Proceedings of Economics and Finance Conferences 4807771, International Institute of Social and Economic Sciences.
    8. Stošić, Dusan & Stošić, Darko & Stošić, Tatijana & Eugene Stanley, H., 2015. "Multifractal properties of price change and volume change of stock market indices," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 428(C), pages 46-51.
    9. Zhou, Su, 2002. "The forward premium anomaly and the trend behavior of the exchange rates," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 76(2), pages 273-279, July.
    10. Trust R. Mpofu, 2016. "The Determinants of Exchange Rate Volatility in South Africa," Working Papers 604, Economic Research Southern Africa.
    11. Meng, Xiangcai & Huang, Chia-Hsing, 2019. "The time-frequency co-movement of Asian effective exchange rates: A wavelet approach with daily data," The North American Journal of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 48(C), pages 131-148.
    12. Francis M. Kemegue & Marthinus C. Breitenbach & Mulatu F. Zerihun, 2015. "Assessment of Monetary Union in SADC: Evidence from Cointegration and Panel Unit Root Tests," Working Papers 495, Economic Research Southern Africa.
    13. Mordechai E. Kreinin & Michael G. Plummer, 2002. "Economic Integration and Development," Books, Edward Elgar Publishing, number 2426, December.
    14. Zhang, Xun & Lai, K.K. & Wang, Shou-Yang, 2008. "A new approach for crude oil price analysis based on Empirical Mode Decomposition," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 30(3), pages 905-918, May.
    15. Lorenzo Cappiello & Robert F. Engle & Kevin Sheppard, 2006. "Asymmetric Dynamics in the Correlations of Global Equity and Bond Returns," Journal of Financial Econometrics, Oxford University Press, vol. 4(4), pages 537-572.
    16. Sebastian Edwards, 2006. "Monetary Unions, External Shocks and Economic Performance," Working Papers 126, Oesterreichische Nationalbank (Austrian Central Bank).
    17. Simplice Asongu & Jacinta Nwachukwu & Vanessa Tchamyou, 2017. "A Literature Survey On Proposed African Monetary Unions," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 31(3), pages 878-902, July.
    18. Baxter, Marianne & Stockman, Alan C., 1989. "Business cycles and the exchange-rate regime : Some international evidence," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 23(3), pages 377-400, May.
    19. Paul Alagidede & George Tweneboah & Anokye M. Adam, 2008. "Nominal Exchange Rates and Price Convergence in the West African Monetary Zone," International Journal of Business and Economics, School of Management Development, Feng Chia University, Taichung, Taiwan, vol. 7(3), pages 181-198, December.
    20. Honohan, Patrick & Lane, Philip R., "undated". "Will the Euro Trigger More Monetary Unions in Africa?," WIDER Working Papers 295503, United Nations University, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
    21. Tamim Bayoumi, 1994. "A Formal Model of Optimum Currency Areas," IMF Staff Papers, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 41(4), pages 537-554, December.
    22. Ibhagui, Oyakhilome, 2017. "Linking Fiscal Policy and External Competitiveness in Sub-Saharan Africa – Does Government Spending Drive The Real Exchange Rate in Sub-Saharan Africa," MPRA Paper 77291, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 03 Mar 2017.
    23. Jeannine Bailliu & Michael R. King, 2005. "What Drives Movements in Exchange Rates?," Bank of Canada Review, Bank of Canada, vol. 2005(Autumn), pages 27-39.
    24. Peterson Owusu Junior & Anokye M. Adam & George Tweneboah, 2017. "Co-movement of real exchange rates in the West African Monetary Zone," Cogent Economics & Finance, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 5(1), pages 1351807-135, January.
    25. Fama, Eugene F, 1970. "Efficient Capital Markets: A Review of Theory and Empirical Work," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 25(2), pages 383-417, May.
    26. Go Tamakoshi & Shigeyuki Hamori, 2013. "An asymmetric dynamic conditional correlation analysis of linkages of European financial institutions during the Greek sovereign debt crisis," The European Journal of Finance, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 19(10), pages 939-950, November.
    27. Pereira, Eder Johnson de Area Leão & Ferreira, Paulo Jorge Silveira & Silva, Marcus Fernandes da & Miranda, Jose Garcia Vivas & Pereira, H.B. B., 2019. "Multiscale network for 20 stock markets using DCCA," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 529(C).
    28. Ferreira, Alex & Moore, Michael & Mukherjee, Satrajit, 2019. "Expectation errors in the foreign exchange market," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 95(C), pages 44-51.
    29. Christian K. Tipoy, 2015. "Real convergence using TAR panel unit root tests: an application to Southern African Development Community," Working Papers 536, Economic Research Southern Africa.
    30. Juan-Sebastian Corrales & Patrick A. Imam & Sebastian Weber & Etienne Yehoue, 2016. "Dollarisation in Sub-Saharan Africa," Journal of African Economies, Centre for the Study of African Economies, vol. 25(1), pages 28-54.
    31. Reboredo, Juan C. & Rivera-Castro, Miguel A., 2013. "A wavelet decomposition approach to crude oil price and exchange rate dependence," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 32(C), pages 42-57.
    32. Lin, Chien-Hsiu, 2012. "The comovement between exchange rates and stock prices in the Asian emerging markets," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 22(1), pages 161-172.
    33. Mai, Yong & Chen, Huan & Zou, Jun-Zhong & Li, Sai-Ping, 2018. "Currency co-movement and network correlation structure of foreign exchange market," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 492(C), pages 65-74.
    34. Harold P. E. Ngawala & Ntokozo P. Nzimande, 2016. "Is There a SADC Business Cycle? Evidence from a Dynamic Factor Model," Working Papers 651, Economic Research Southern Africa.
    35. Coulibaly, Issiaka & Gnimassoun, Blaise, 2013. "Optimality of a monetary union: New evidence from exchange rate misalignments in West Africa," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 32(C), pages 463-482.
    36. Paul De Grauwe (ed.), 2001. "The Political Economy of Monetary Union," Books, Edward Elgar Publishing, number 2131, December.
    37. Orlov, Alexei G., 2009. "A cospectral analysis of exchange rate comovements during Asian financial crisis," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 19(5), pages 742-758, December.
    38. Inci, Ahmet Can & Lu, Biao, 2004. "Exchange rates and interest rates: can term structure models explain currency movements?," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 28(8), pages 1595-1624, June.
    39. Toyoshima, Yuki & Tamakoshi, Go & Hamori, Shigeyuki, 2012. "Asymmetric dynamics in correlations of treasury and swap markets: Evidence from the US market," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 22(2), pages 381-394.
    40. Mr. Taimur Baig, 2001. "Characterizing Exchange Rate Regimes in Post-Crisis East Asia," IMF Working Papers 2001/152, International Monetary Fund.
    41. Khamfula, Yohane & Huizinga, Harry, 2004. "The Southern African Development Community: suitable for a monetary union?," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 73(2), pages 699-714, April.
    42. Barbara Fritz & Laurissa Muhlich, 2010. "South-south monetary integration: the case for a research framework beyond the theory of optimum currency area," International Journal of Public Policy, Inderscience Enterprises Ltd, vol. 6(1/2), pages 118-135.
    43. Zebende, G.F., 2011. "DCCA cross-correlation coefficient: Quantifying level of cross-correlation," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 390(4), pages 614-618.
    44. Engle, Robert, 2002. "Dynamic Conditional Correlation: A Simple Class of Multivariate Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroskedasticity Models," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 20(3), pages 339-350, July.
    45. Ms. Iyabo Masha & Mr. Leighton S Harris & Mr. Jian-Ye Wang & Ms. Kazuko Shirono, 2007. "The Common Monetary Area in Southern Africa: Shocks, Adjustment, and Policy Challenges," IMF Working Papers 2007/158, International Monetary Fund.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Peterson Owusu Junior & Anokye M. Adam & George Tweneboah, 2017. "Co-movement of real exchange rates in the West African Monetary Zone," Cogent Economics & Finance, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 5(1), pages 1351807-135, January.
    2. Samba Diop & Simplice A. Asongu, 2020. "An Index of African Monetary Integration (IAMI)," Working Papers 20/003, European Xtramile Centre of African Studies (EXCAS).
    3. Simplice Asongu & Jacinta C. Nwachukwu & Vanessa S. Tchamyou, 2017. "A summary of a survey on proposed African monetary unions," Working Papers of the African Governance and Development Institute. 17/008, African Governance and Development Institute..
    4. Agénor, Pierre-Richard & Aizenman, Joshua, 2011. "Capital market imperfections and the theory of optimum currency areas," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 30(8), pages 1659-1675.
    5. Wörgötter, Andreas & Brixiova, Zuzana, 2020. "Monetary Unions of Small Currencies and a Dominating Member: What Policies Work Best for Benefiting from the CMA?," IZA Policy Papers 163, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    6. Simplice Asongu & Oludele Folarin & Nicholas Biekpe, 2019. "The stability of demand for money in the proposed Southern African Monetary Union," International Journal of Emerging Markets, Emerald Group Publishing Limited, vol. 15(2), pages 222-244, August.
    7. Rahim, Adam Mohamed & Masih, Mansur, 2016. "Portfolio diversification benefits of Islamic investors with their major trading partners: Evidence from Malaysia based on MGARCH-DCC and wavelet approaches," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 54(C), pages 425-438.
    8. Simplice Asongu & Jacinta Nwachukwu & Vanessa Tchamyou, 2017. "A Literature Survey On Proposed African Monetary Unions," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 31(3), pages 878-902, July.
    9. Jin Guo & Tetsuji Tanaka, 2019. "Determinants of international price volatility transmissions: the role of self-sufficiency rates in wheat-importing countries," Palgrave Communications, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 5(1), pages 1-13, December.
    10. Bubák, Vít & Kocenda, Evzen & Zikes, Filip, 2011. "Volatility transmission in emerging European foreign exchange markets," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 35(11), pages 2829-2841, November.
    11. Toyoshima, Yuki & Hamori, Shigeyuki, 2013. "Asymmetric dynamics in stock market correlations: Evidence from Japan and Singapore," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 24(C), pages 117-123.
    12. Tiwari, Aviral Kumar & Mutascu, Mihai Ioan & Albulescu, Claudiu Tiberiu, 2016. "Continuous wavelet transform and rolling correlation of European stock markets," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 42(C), pages 237-256.
    13. Kim, Bong-Han & Kim, Hyeongwoo & Lee, Bong-Soo, 2015. "Spillover effects of the U.S. financial crisis on financial markets in emerging Asian countries," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 39(C), pages 192-210.
    14. Riadh Abed & Amna Zardoub, 2019. "On the co-movements among gold and other financial markets: a multivariate time-varying asymmetric approach," International Economics and Economic Policy, Springer, vol. 16(4), pages 701-719, October.
    15. Rodriguez, E. & Alvarez-Ramirez, J., 2021. "Time-varying cross-correlation between trading volume and returns in US stock markets," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 581(C).
    16. Kuruppuarachchi, Duminda & Premachandra, I.M. & Roberts, Helen, 2019. "A novel market efficiency index for energy futures and their term structure risk premiums," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 77(C), pages 23-33.
    17. El Abed, Riadh & Zardoub, Amna, 2017. "Time varying and asymmetric effect between sovereign credit market and financial market: The asymmetric DCC model," Economics Discussion Papers 2017-97, Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW Kiel).
    18. Simona Moagăr-Poladian & Dorina Clichici & Cristian-Valeriu Stanciu, 2019. "The Comovement of Exchange Rates and Stock Markets in Central and Eastern Europe," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 11(14), pages 1-22, July.
    19. Claudiu Tiberiu Albulescu & Daniel Goyeau & Aviral Kumar Tiwari, 2015. "Contagion and Dynamic Correlation of the Main European Stock Index Futures Markets: A Time-frequency Approach," Post-Print hal-01376756, HAL.
    20. Jammazi, Rania & Ferrer, Román & Jareño, Francisco & Shahzad, Syed Jawad Hussain, 2017. "Time-varying causality between crude oil and stock markets: What can we learn from a multiscale perspective?," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 49(C), pages 453-483.

    More about this item


    Detrended cross-correlation analysis (DCCA); Ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD); Intrinsic mode function; Exchange rate; Short data span; Nonstationarity; Nonlinearity; Long memory; Time series;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • C30 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables - - - General
    • C40 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric and Statistical Methods: Special Topics - - - General
    • C50 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric Modeling - - - General


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:spr:jecfin:v:46:y:2022:i:1:d:10.1007_s12197-021-09560-w. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Sonal Shukla or Springer Nature Abstracting and Indexing (email available below). General contact details of provider: .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service. RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.