IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/eee/wdevel/v123y2019ic8.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

The dilemma of NGOs and participatory conservation

Author

Listed:
  • Aldashev, Gani
  • Vallino, Elena

Abstract

Participatory conservation projects imply direct involvement of local communities in natural conservation efforts, aiming at combining economic development with protecting the environment. NGOs engaged in both development and conservation massively implement such projects. Numerous field studies document mixed results of such interventions and the persistence of conservation-development tradeoff: better conservation comes at the expense of lowering the livelihoods of community members because they have to abstain from using the conservation area for hunting or agriculture. Economists argue that transferring property rights to relevant stakeholders would provide the right incentives for escaping this tradeoff. We build a simple model explaining why this policy might be insufficient. If the revenue from the conservation project is low and/or volatile, the community members may rationally reject conservation unless the NGO allocates a part of resources to sustaining community livelihoods (e.g. by agricultural extension). Hence, the NGO should deviate from its narrow mission to reach its broader objective. If the NGO is funded by strictly environmentally-oriented donors it may struggle to justify diverting a part of resources to agricultural extension, as such donors obtain little “warm-glow” utility from giving to the NGO that substantially engages in non-core mission activities. Thus, the NGO faces a “size versus efficiency” dilemma: poorly conserving a larger area (with non-cooperating local communities but happier donors) or conserving well a smaller area (with cooperation by local communities but keeping donors unsatisfied).

Suggested Citation

  • Aldashev, Gani & Vallino, Elena, 2019. "The dilemma of NGOs and participatory conservation," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 123(C), pages 1-1.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:wdevel:v:123:y:2019:i:c:8
    DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2019.104615
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0305750X19302098
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Azam, Jean-Paul & Laffont, Jean-Jacques, 2003. "Contracting for aid," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 70(1), pages 25-58, February.
    2. Jean-Marie Baland & François Libois & Dilip Mookherjee, 2018. "Forest Degradation and Economic Growth in Nepal, 2003–2010," Journal of the Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, University of Chicago Press, vol. 5(2), pages 401-439.
    3. Engel, Stefanie & Palmer, Charles, 2008. "Payments for environmental services as an alternative to logging under weak property rights: The case of Indonesia," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 65(4), pages 799-809, May.
    4. Edwin Muchapondwa & Fredrik Carlsson & Gunmar Köhlin, 2006. "Can local communities in Zimbabwe be trusted with wildlife management?: Evidence from contingent valuation of elephants," Working Papers 52, Economic Research Southern Africa.
    5. Gibson, Clark C. & Marks, Stuart A., 1995. "Transforming rural hunters into conservationists: An assessment of community-based wildlife management programs in Africa," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 23(6), pages 941-957, June.
    6. Alix-Garcia, Jennifer, 2008. "An exploration of the positive effect of inequality on common property forests," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 87(1), pages 92-105, August.
    7. Grossman, Sanford J & Hart, Oliver D, 1986. "The Costs and Benefits of Ownership: A Theory of Vertical and Lateral Integration," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 94(4), pages 691-719, August.
    8. Johannesen, Anne Borge & Skonhoft, Anders, 2005. "Tourism, poaching and wildlife conservation: what can integrated conservation and development projects accomplish?," Resource and Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 27(3), pages 208-226, October.
    9. Foster, Andrew D & Rosenzweig, Mark R, 1995. "Learning by Doing and Learning from Others: Human Capital and Technical Change in Agriculture," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 103(6), pages 1176-1209, December.
    10. Perez-Castrillo, J David & Verdier, Thierry, 1992. "A General Analysis of Rent-Seeking Games," Public Choice, Springer, vol. 73(3), pages 335-350, April.
    11. Winkler, Ralph, 2011. "Why do ICDPs fail?: The relationship between agriculture, hunting and ecotourism in wildlife conservation," Resource and Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 33(1), pages 55-78, January.
    12. Tachibana, Towa & Nguyen, Trung M. & Otsuka, Keijiro, 2001. "Agricultural Intensification versus Extensification: A Case Study of Deforestation in the Northern-Hill Region of Vietnam," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 41(1), pages 44-69, January.
    13. Anders Skonhoft & Jan Tore Solstad, 1998. "The Political Economy of Wildlife Exploitation," Land Economics, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 74(1), pages 16-31.
    14. Muller, Jeffrey & Albers, Heidi J., 2004. "Enforcement, payments, and development projects near protected areas: how the market setting determines what works where," Resource and Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 26(2), pages 185-204, June.
    15. Gani ALDASHEV & Cecilia NAVARRA, 2018. "Development Ngos: Basic Facts," Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 89(1), pages 125-155, March.
    16. Feder, Gershon & Just, Richard E & Zilberman, David, 1985. "Adoption of Agricultural Innovations in Developing Countries: A Survey," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 33(2), pages 255-298, January.
    17. J-P. Platteau & A. Abraham, 2002. "Participatory Development in the Presence of Endogenous Community Imperfections," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 39(2), pages 104-136.
    18. Edmonds, Eric V., 2002. "Government-initiated community resource management and local resource extraction from Nepal's forests," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 68(1), pages 89-115, June.
    19. Eric Werker & Faisal Z. Ahmed, 2008. "What Do Nongovernmental Organizations Do?," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 22(2), pages 73-92, Spring.
    20. Timothy Besley & Maitreesh Ghatak, 2001. "Government Versus Private Ownership of Public Goods," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 116(4), pages 1343-1372.
    21. Baland, Jean-Marie & Francois, Patrick, 2005. "Commons as insurance and the welfare impact of privatization," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 89(2-3), pages 211-231, February.
    22. Aldashev, Gani & Verdier, Thierry, 2010. "Goodwill bazaar: NGO competition and giving to development," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 91(1), pages 48-63, January.
    23. Bhubaneswor Dhakal & Hugh Bigsby & Ross Cullen, 2012. "Socioeconomic Impacts of Public Forest Policies on Heterogeneous Agricultural Households," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 53(1), pages 73-95, September.
    24. Ghazala Mansuri, 2004. "Community-Based and -Driven Development: A Critical Review," World Bank Research Observer, World Bank Group, vol. 19(1), pages 1-39.
    25. Paul E. Waggoner & Jesse H. Ausubel, 2001. "How Much Will Feeding More and Wealthier People Encroach on Forests?," Population and Development Review, The Population Council, Inc., vol. 27(2), pages 239-257, June.
    26. Calfucura, Enrique, 2018. "Governance, Land and Distribution: A Discussion on the Political Economy of Community-Based Conservation," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 145(C), pages 18-26.
    27. de Janvry, Alain & Fafchamps, Marcel & Sadoulet, Elisabeth, 1991. "Peasant Household Behaviour with Missing Markets: Some Paradoxes Explained," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 101(409), pages 1400-1417, November.
    28. repec:bla:annpce:v:89:y:2018:i:1:p:125-155 is not listed on IDEAS
    29. Songorwa, Alexander N., 1999. "Community-Based Wildlife Management (CWM) in Tanzania: Are the Communities Interested?," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 27(12), pages 2061-2079, December.
    30. Christopher B. Barrett & Peter Arcese, 1998. "Wildlife Harvest in Integrated Conservation and Development Projects: Linking Harvest to Household Demand, Agricultural Production, and Environmental Shocks in the Serengeti," Land Economics, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 74(4), pages 449-465.
    31. Unai Pascual & Edward B. Barbier, 2006. "Deprived land‐use intensification in shifting cultivation: the population pressure hypothesis revisited," Agricultural Economics, International Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 34(2), pages 155-165, March.
    32. Carolyn Fischer & Edwin Muchapondwa & Thomas Sterner, 2011. "A Bio-Economic Model of Community Incentives for Wildlife Management Under CAMPFIRE," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 48(2), pages 303-319, February.
    33. Blaikie, Piers, 2006. "Is Small Really Beautiful? Community-based Natural Resource Management in Malawi and Botswana," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 34(11), pages 1942-1957, November.
    34. Frontuto, Vito & Dalmazzone, Silvana & Vallino, Elena & Giaccaria, Sergio, 2017. "Earmarking conservation: Further inquiry on scope effects in stated preference methods applied to nature-based tourism," Tourism Management, Elsevier, vol. 60(C), pages 130-139.
    35. Deininger, Klaus W & Minten, Bart, 1999. "Poverty, Policies, and Deforestation: The Case of Mexico," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 47(2), pages 313-344, January.
    36. Tarui, Nori, 2007. "Inequality and outside options in common-property resource use," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 83(1), pages 214-239, May.
    37. Platteau, Jean-Philippe & Gaspart, Frederic, 2003. "The Risk of Resource Misappropriation in Community-Driven Development," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 31(10), pages 1687-1703, October.
    38. Vallino, Elena, 2013. "The tragedy of the park: an agent-based model on endogenous and exogenous institutions for the management of a forest," Department of Economics and Statistics Cognetti de Martiis. Working Papers 201316, University of Turin.
    39. Unai Pascual & Roberto Martínez-Espiñeira, 2009. "The effect of environmental change and price policies on livelihoods in tropical agroforestry systems," Journal of International Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 21(3), pages 433-446.
    40. de Janvry, Alain & Fafchamps, M. & Sadoulet, Elisabeth, 1991. "Peasant Household Behavior with Missing Markets: Some Paradoxes Explain," CUDARE Working Papers 198579, University of California, Berkeley, Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics.
    41. Skonhoft, Anders, 2007. "Economic modeling approaches for wildlife and species conservation," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 62(2), pages 223-231, April.
    42. Coria, Jessica & Calfucura, Enrique, 2012. "Ecotourism and the development of indigenous communities: The good, the bad, and the ugly," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 73(C), pages 47-55.
    43. Platteau, Jean-Philippe & Seki, Erika, 2007. "Heterogeneity, social esteem and feasibility of collective action," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 83(2), pages 302-325, July.
    44. Gani Aldashev & Marco Marini & Thierry Verdier, 2017. "Samaritan Bundles: Inefficient Clustering in NGO Projects," Working Papers 6/17, Sapienza University of Rome, DISS.
    45. Skonhoft, Anders, 1998. "Resource utilization, property rights and welfare--Wildlife and the local people," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 26(1), pages 67-80, July.
    46. Martin D. Smith, 2002. "Two Econometric Approaches for Predicting the Spatial Behavior of Renewable Resource Harvesters," Land Economics, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 78(4), pages 522-538.
    47. Wunder, Sven, 2001. "Poverty Alleviation and Tropical Forests--What Scope for Synergies?," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 29(11), pages 1817-1833, November.
    48. Bulte, Erwin H. & van Soest, Daan P., 2001. "Environmental degradation in developing countries: households and the (reverse) Environmental Kuznets Curve," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 65(1), pages 225-235, June.
    49. Schulz, Carl-Erik & Skonhoft, Anders, 1996. "Wildlife management, land-use and conflicts," Environment and Development Economics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 1(3), pages 265-280, July.
    50. Matthew Auer, 2006. "Contexts, multiple methods, and values in the study of common-pool resources," Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 25(1), pages 215-227.
    51. Isham, Jonathan & Narayan, Deepa & Pritchett, Lant, 1995. "Does Participation Improve Performance? Establishing Causality with Subjective Data," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 9(2), pages 175-200, May.
    52. Koop, Gary & Tole, Lise, 1999. "Is there an environmental Kuznets curve for deforestation?," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 58(1), pages 231-244, February.
    53. H. Scott Gordon, 1954. "The Economic Theory of a Common-Property Resource: The Fishery," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 62, pages 124-124.
    54. Barrett, Christopher B. & Arcese, Peter, 1995. "Are Integrated Conservation-Development Projects (ICDPs) Sustainable? On the conservation of large mammals in sub-Saharan Africa," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 23(7), pages 1073-1084, July.
    55. Sanjayan, M.A. & Shen, S. & Jansen, M., 1997. "Experiences with Integrated-Conservation Development Projects in Asia," Papers 388, World Bank - Technical Papers.
    56. Ghosh, Suman & Van Tassel, Eric, 2011. "Microfinance and competition for external funding," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 112(2), pages 168-170, August.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Participatory conservation; NGOs; Local development; Land use; Agriculture;

    JEL classification:

    • L31 - Industrial Organization - - Nonprofit Organizations and Public Enterprise - - - Nonprofit Institutions; NGOs; Social Entrepreneurship
    • O19 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - International Linkages to Development; Role of International Organizations
    • O13 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Agriculture; Natural Resources; Environment; Other Primary Products
    • Q15 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Agriculture - - - Land Ownership and Tenure; Land Reform; Land Use; Irrigation; Agriculture and Environment
    • Q26 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Renewable Resources and Conservation - - - Recreational Aspects of Natural Resources

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:wdevel:v:123:y:2019:i:c:8. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Haili He). General contact details of provider: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/worlddev .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.