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Tourism, Poaching and Wildlife Conservation: What can Integrated Conservation and Development Projects accomplish?

Author

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  • Anders Skonhoft

    () (Department of Economics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology)

  • Anne Borge Johannesen

    (Department of Economics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology)

Abstract

Integrated Conservation and Development Projects (ICDPs) have frequently been established in Africa to improve wildlife conservation and the welfare of local communities. However, their effectiveness so far has been hampered by conflicts and illegal harvesting activities. Within a Gordon-Schäfer-type model, this paper focuses on the strategic interaction between the manager of a protected area and a group of local people living near the park. The park manager benefits from wildlife through non-consumptive tourism and safari hunting. The local people benefit through hunting, although this is illegal according to existing laws, but they also bear costs as wildlife causes agricultural damage. Depending on the economic and ecological environment, we show that ICDPs relying on money transfers to the local people derived from the park manager’s activities may or may not promote wildlife conservation. In addition, we demonstrate that the effects on the welfare of the local people are ambiguous.

Suggested Citation

  • Anders Skonhoft & Anne Borge Johannesen, 2004. "Tourism, Poaching and Wildlife Conservation: What can Integrated Conservation and Development Projects accomplish?," Working Paper Series 4504, Department of Economics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology.
  • Handle: RePEc:nst:samfok:4504
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    File URL: http://www.svt.ntnu.no/iso/WP/2004/10wildlifenash0904.pdf
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Gibson, Clark C. & Marks, Stuart A., 1995. "Transforming rural hunters into conservationists: An assessment of community-based wildlife management programs in Africa," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 23(6), pages 941-957, June.
    2. Muller, Jeffrey & Albers, Heidi J., 2004. "Enforcement, payments, and development projects near protected areas: how the market setting determines what works where," Resource and Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 26(2), pages 185-204, June.
    3. Zivin, Joshua & Hueth, Brent M. & Zilberman, David, 2000. "Managing a Multiple-Use Resource: The Case of Feral Pig Management in California Rangeland," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 39(2), pages 189-204, March.
    4. de Janvry, Alain & Fafchamps, Marcel & Sadoulet, Elisabeth, 1991. "Peasant Household Behaviour with Missing Markets: Some Paradoxes Explained," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 101(409), pages 1400-1417, November.
    5. Songorwa, Alexander N., 1999. "Community-Based Wildlife Management (CWM) in Tanzania: Are the Communities Interested?," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 27(12), pages 2061-2079, December.
    6. Christopher B. Barrett & Peter Arcese, 1998. "Wildlife Harvest in Integrated Conservation and Development Projects: Linking Harvest to Household Demand, Agricultural Production, and Environmental Shocks in the Serengeti," Land Economics, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 74(4), pages 449-465.
    7. Skonhoft, Anders, 1998. "Resource utilization, property rights and welfare--Wildlife and the local people," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 26(1), pages 67-80, July.
    8. Brandon, Katrina Eadie & Wells, Michael, 1992. "Planning for people and parks: Design dilemmas," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 20(4), pages 557-570, April.
    9. Barrett, Christopher B. & Arcese, Peter, 1995. "Are Integrated Conservation-Development Projects (ICDPs) Sustainable? On the conservation of large mammals in sub-Saharan Africa," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 23(7), pages 1073-1084, July.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Winkler, Ralph, 2011. "Why do ICDPs fail?: The relationship between agriculture, hunting and ecotourism in wildlife conservation," Resource and Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 33(1), pages 55-78, January.
    2. Elizabeth J. Z. Robinson & Heidi J. Albers & Charles Meshack & Razack B. Lokina, 2013. "Implementing REDD through community‐based forest management: Lessons from Tanzania," Natural Resources Forum, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 0(3), pages 141-152, August.
    3. Albers, Heidi J. & Robinson, Elizabeth J.Z., 2011. "The Trees and the Bees: Using Enforcement and Income Projects to Protect Forests and Rural Livelihoods Through Spatial Joint Production," Agricultural and Resource Economics Review, Northeastern Agricultural and Resource Economics Association, vol. 40(3), December.
    4. Skonhoft, Anders, 2007. "Economic modeling approaches for wildlife and species conservation," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 62(2), pages 223-231, April.
    5. Coria, Jessica & Calfucura, Enrique, 2012. "Ecotourism and the development of indigenous communities: The good, the bad, and the ugly," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 73(C), pages 47-55.
    6. Samson Mukanjari, Edwin Muchapondwa, Precious Zikhali and Birgit Bednar-Friedl, 2012. "Evaluating the Prospects of Benefit Sharing Schemes in Protecting Mountain Gorillas in Central Africa," Working Papers 321, Economic Research Southern Africa.
    7. Lars Ravensbeck & Ayoe Hoff & Hans Frost, 2016. "Implications for fisheries management by inclusion of marine ecosystem services," IFRO Working Paper 2016/12, University of Copenhagen, Department of Food and Resource Economics.
    8. Hay, Eric J. & Kragt, Marit & Renton, Michael & Vongkhamheng, Chanthavy, 2017. "Modelling the effects of anti-poaching patrols on wildlife diversity in the Phou Chomvoy Provincial Protected Area," Research Reports 252863, Australian National University, Effective Implementation of Payments for Environmental Services in Lao PDR.
    9. Richard Damania & Pasquale Lucio Scandizzo & Ann Jeannette Glauber, 2014. "Ecosystems - Burden or Bounty?," CEIS Research Paper 324, Tor Vergata University, CEIS, revised 08 Aug 2014.
    10. Fischer, Carolyn & Sterner, Thomas & Muchapondwa, Edwin, 2005. "Bioeconomic Model of Community Incentives for Wildlife Management Before and After CAMPFIRE," Discussion Papers dp-05-06, Resources For the Future.
    11. repec:eee:resene:v:48:y:2017:i:c:p:55-67 is not listed on IDEAS
    12. Carolyn Fischer & Edwin Muchapondwa & Thomas Sterner, 2011. "A Bio-Economic Model of Community Incentives for Wildlife Management Under CAMPFIRE," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 48(2), pages 303-319, February.
    13. repec:eee:touman:v:40:y:2014:i:c:p:300-310 is not listed on IDEAS
    14. Sonja S. Teelucksingh & Paulo A.L.D. Nunes, 2010. "Biodiversity Valuation in Developing Countries: A Focus on Small Island Developing States (SIDS)," Working Papers 2010.111, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei.
    15. Robinson, Elizabeth J.Z. & Albers, Heidi J. & Ngeleza, Guyslain & Lokina, Razack B., 2014. "Insiders, outsiders, and the role of local enforcement in forest management: An example from Tanzania," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 107(C), pages 242-248.
    16. Naevdal, Eric & Olaussen, Jon Olaf & Skonhoft, Anders, 2012. "A bioeconomic model of trophy hunting," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 73(C), pages 194-205.
    17. Ralph Winkler, 2007. "Why do ICDPs fail? The relationship between subsistence farming, poaching and eco- tourism in wildlife and habitat conservation," CER-ETH Economics working paper series 07/76, CER-ETH - Center of Economic Research (CER-ETH) at ETH Zurich.
    18. Anders Skonhoft, 2015. "The Silence of the Lambs: Payment for Carnivore Conservation and Sheep Farming," Working Paper Series 16915, Department of Economics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    wildlife; conservation; conflicts; local welfare;

    JEL classification:

    • Q2 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Renewable Resources and Conservation
    • Q20 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Renewable Resources and Conservation - - - General

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