IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/
MyIDEAS: Login to save this article or follow this journal

National Systems of Entrepreneurship: Measurement issues and policy implications

  • Ács, Zoltán J.
  • Autio, Erkko
  • Szerb, László

We introduce a novel concept of National Systems of Entrepreneurship and provide an approach to characterizing them. National Systems of Entrepreneurship are fundamentally resource allocation systems that are driven by individual-level opportunity pursuit, through the creation of new ventures, with this activity and its outcomes regulated by country-specific institutional characteristics. In contrast with the institutional emphasis of the National Systems of Innovation frameworks, where institutions engender and regulate action, National Systems of Entrepreneurship are driven by individuals, with institutions regulating who acts and the outcomes of individual action. Building on these principles, we also introduce a novel index methodology to characterize National Systems of Entrepreneurship. The distinctive features of the methodology are: (1) systemic approach, which allows interactions between components of National Systems of Entrepreneurship; (2) the Penalty for Bottleneck feature, which identifies bottleneck factors that hold back system performance; (3) contextualization, which recognizes that national entrepreneurship processes are always embedded in a given country's institutional framework.

If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048733313001613
Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.

Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Research Policy.

Volume (Year): 43 (2014)
Issue (Month): 3 ()
Pages: 476-494

as
in new window

Handle: RePEc:eee:respol:v:43:y:2014:i:3:p:476-494
Contact details of provider: Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/respol

References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:

as in new window
  1. Adams, Stephen B., 2011. "Growing where you are planted: Exogenous firms and the seeding of Silicon Valley," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 40(3), pages 368-379, April.
  2. Siri Terjesen & Ning Wang, 2013. "Coase on entrepreneurship," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 40(2), pages 173-184, February.
  3. Poh Wong & Yuen Ho & Erkko Autio, 2005. "Entrepreneurship, Innovation and Economic Growth: Evidence from GEM data," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 24(3), pages 335-350, 01.
  4. Zoltan J. Acs & David B. Audretsch & Pontus Braunerhjelm & Bo Carlsson, 2005. "The Knowledge Spillover Theory of Entrepreneurship," Papers on Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy 2005-27, Max Planck Institute of Economics, Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy Group.
  5. Blanchflower, David G. & Oswald, Andrew & Stutzer, Alois, 2001. "Latent entrepreneurship across nations," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 45(4-6), pages 680-691, May.
  6. Jeffery S. McMullen & Lawrence A. Plummer & Zoltan J. Acs, 2007. "What is an Entrepreneurial Opportunity?," Papers on Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy 2007-10, Max Planck Institute of Economics, Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy Group.
  7. Caliendo, Marco & Fossen, Frank M. & Kritikos, Alexander S., 2006. "Risk Attitudes of Nascent Entrepreneurs: New Evidence from an Experimentally-Validated Survey," IZA Discussion Papers 2168, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  8. Hung, Shih-Chang & Whittington, Richard, 2011. "Agency in national innovation systems: Institutional entrepreneurship and the professionalization of Taiwanese IT," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 40(4), pages 526-538, May.
  9. Djankov, Simeon & La Porta, Rafael & Lopez-de-Silanes, Florencio & Shleifer, Andrei, 2001. "The Regulation of Entry," Working Paper Series rwp01-015, Harvard University, John F. Kennedy School of Government.
  10. Dirk Clercq & Harry Sapienza & Hans Crijns, 2005. "The Internationalization of Small and Medium-Sized Firms," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 24(4), pages 409-419, 05.
  11. Caves, R E & Porter, M E, 1977. "From Entry Barriers to Mobility Barriers: Conjectural Decisions and Contrived Deterrence to New Competition," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 91(2), pages 241-61, May.
  12. Kenney, Martin & von Burg, Urs, 1999. "Technology, Entrepreneurship and Path Dependence: Industrial Clustering in Silicon Valley and Route 128," Industrial and Corporate Change, Oxford University Press, vol. 8(1), pages 67-103, March.
  13. repec:cup:cbooks:9780521728355 is not listed on IDEAS
  14. Stenholm, Pekka & Acs, Zoltan J. & Wuebker, Robert, 2013. "Exploring country-level institutional arrangements on the rate and type of entrepreneurial activity," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 28(1), pages 176-193.
  15. Yosem Companys & Jeffery McMullen, 2007. "Strategic Entrepreneurs at Work: The Nature, Discovery, and Exploitation of Entrepreneurial Opportunities," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 28(4), pages 301-322, April.
  16. Gustafsson, Robin & Autio, Erkko, 2011. "A failure trichotomy in knowledge exploration and exploitation," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 40(6), pages 819-831, July.
  17. Jonathan Levie & Erkko Autio, 2008. "A theoretical grounding and test of the GEM model," Global Entrepreneurship Monitor Working Paper Series 1102, Global Entrepreneurship Research Association, revised Jul 2008.
  18. Acs, Zoltan J & Audretsch, David B, 1988. "Innovation in Large and Small Firms: An Empirical Analysis," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 78(4), pages 678-90, September.
  19. Nadim Ahmad & Anders Hoffman, 2008. "A Framework for Addressing and Measuring Entrepreneurship," OECD Statistics Working Papers 2008/2, OECD Publishing.
  20. Steven Klepper, 2010. "The Origin and Growth of Industry Clusters: The Making of Silicon Valley and Detroit," NBER Chapters, in: Cities and Entrepreneurship National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  21. Jonathan Levie & Erkko Autio, 2011. "Regulatory Burden, Rule of Law, and Entry of Strategic Entrepreneurs: An International Panel Study," Journal of Management Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 48, pages 1392-1419, 09.
  22. Zoltan Acs & Mark Sanders, 2013. "Knowledge spillover entrepreneurship in an endogenous growth model," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 41(4), pages 775-795, December.
  23. Davidsson, Per & Honig, Benson, 2003. "The role of social and human capital among nascent entrepreneurs," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 18(3), pages 301-331, May.
  24. Erik Stam & Karl Wennberg, 2009. "The roles of R&D in new firm growth," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 33(1), pages 77-89, June.
  25. Djankov, Simeon & Glaeser, Edward & La Porta, Rafael & Lopez-de-Silanes, Florencio & Shleifer, Andrei, 2003. "The new comparative economics," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 31(4), pages 595-619, December.
  26. repec:dgr:uvatin:2007066 is not listed on IDEAS
  27. Freeman, Chris, 1995. "The 'National System of Innovation' in Historical Perspective," Cambridge Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 19(1), pages 5-24, February.
  28. Autio, E., 1997. "New, technology-based firms in innovation networks symplectic and generative impacts," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 26(3), pages 263-281, October.
  29. Mueller, Pamela, 2006. "Exploring the knowledge filter: How entrepreneurship and university-industry relationships drive economic growth," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 35(10), pages 1499-1508, December.
  30. Glen W. Harrison & Jack Hirshleifer, 1998. "An experimental evaluation of weakest link/best shot models of public goods," Levine's Working Paper Archive 299, David K. Levine.
  31. Audretsch, David B., 2007. "The Entrepreneurial Society," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780195183504, March.
  32. Erkko Autio & Zoltan Acs, 2010. "Intellectual Property Protection and the Formation of Entrepreneurial Growth Aspirations," Global Entrepreneurship Monitor Working Paper Series 1104, Global Entrepreneurship Research Association, revised Jul 2010.
  33. David B. Audretsch, 2007. "Entrepreneurship capital and economic growth," Oxford Review of Economic Policy, Oxford University Press, vol. 23(1), pages 63-78, Spring.
  34. Richard S.J. Tol & Gary W. Yohe, 2006. "The Weakest Link Hypothesis For Adaptive Capacity: An Empirical Test," Working Papers FNU-97, Research unit Sustainability and Global Change, Hamburg University, revised Jan 2006.
  35. Klapper, Leora & Love, Inessa, 2011. "The impact of the financial crisis on new firm registration," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 113(1), pages 1-4, October.
  36. Ozgen, Eren & Baron, Robert A., 2007. "Social sources of information in opportunity recognition: Effects of mentors, industry networks, and professional forums," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 22(2), pages 174-192, March.
  37. Bengt-�ke Lundvall, 2007. "National Innovation Systems—Analytical Concept and Development Tool," Industry and Innovation, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 14(1), pages 95-119.
  38. Djankov, Simeon & McLiesh, Caralee & Ramalho, Rita Maria, 2006. "Regulation and growth," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 92(3), pages 395-401, September.
  39. C. Praag & Peter Versloot, 2007. "What is the value of entrepreneurship? A review of recent research," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 29(4), pages 351-382, December.
  40. Chris Freeman & Luc Soete, 1997. "The Economics of Industrial Innovation, 3rd Edition," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 3, volume 1, number 0262061953, June.
  41. Acs, Zoltan J. & Desai, Sameeksha & Klapper, Leora F, 2008. "What does"entrepreneurship"data really show ? a comparison of the global entrepreneurship monitor and World Bank group datasets," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4667, The World Bank.
  42. Robert Carroll & Douglas Holtz-Eakin & Mark Rider & Harvey S. Rosen, 2000. "Income Taxes and Entrepreneurs' Use of Labor," NBER Working Papers 6578, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  43. repec:cup:cbooks:9780521899604 is not listed on IDEAS
  44. Phan, Phillip H., 2004. "Entrepreneurship theory: possibilities and future directions," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 19(5), pages 617-620, September.
  45. Gary W. Yohe & Richard S.J. Tol, 2001. "Indicators for Social and Economic Coping Capacity – Moving Toward at Working Definition of Adaptive Capacity," Working Papers FNU-8, Research unit Sustainability and Global Change, Hamburg University, revised Jun 2001.
  46. Enrico Casadio Tarabusi & Paolo Palazzi, 2004. "An index for sustainable development," Banca Nazionale del Lavoro Quarterly Review, Banca Nazionale del Lavoro, vol. 57(229), pages 185-206.
  47. Carroll, Robert, et al, 2000. "Income Taxes and Entrepreneurs' Use of Labor," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 18(2), pages 324-51, April.
  48. David G. Blanchflower, 2000. "Self-Employment in OECD Countries," NBER Working Papers 7486, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  49. Zacharakis, Andrew L. & Shepherd, Dean A. & Coombs, Joseph E., 2003. "The development of venture-capital-backed internet companies: An ecosystem perspective," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 18(2), pages 217-231, March.
  50. Baumol, William J, 1990. "Entrepreneurship: Productive, Unproductive, and Destructive," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 98(5), pages 893-921, October.
  51. Audretsch, David B. & Keilbach, Max C. & Lehmann, Erik E., 2006. "Entrepreneurship and Economic Growth," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780195183511, March.
  52. Jonathan Levie & Erkko Autio, 2008. "A theoretical grounding and test of the GEM model," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 31(3), pages 235-263, October.
  53. Rosenberg, Nathan & Nelson, Richard R., 1994. "American universities and technical advance in industry," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 23(3), pages 323-348, May.
  54. Klepper, Steven, 2001. "Employee Startups in High-Tech Industries," Industrial and Corporate Change, Oxford University Press, vol. 10(3), pages 639-74, September.
  55. Paul Reynolds & Niels Bosma & Erkko Autio & Steve Hunt & Natalie De Bono & Isabel Servais & Paloma Lopez-Garcia & Nancy Chin, 2005. "Global Entrepreneurship Monitor: Data Collection Design and Implementation 1998–2003," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 24(3), pages 205-231, 02.
  56. Israel M. Kirzner, 1997. "Entrepreneurial Discovery and the Competitive Market Process: An Austrian Approach," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 35(1), pages 60-85, March.
  57. Baumol, William J., 1996. "Entrepreneurship: Productive, unproductive, and destructive," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 11(1), pages 3-22, January.
  58. Lundvall, Bengt-Ake & Johnson, Bjorn & Andersen, Esben Sloth & Dalum, Bent, 2002. "National systems of production, innovation and competence building," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 31(2), pages 213-231, February.
  59. Grimaldi, Rosa & Kenney, Martin & Siegel, Donald S. & Wright, Mike, 2011. "30 years after Bayh-Dole: Reassessing academic entrepreneurship," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 40(8), pages 1045-1057, October.
  60. Ajzen, Icek, 1991. "The theory of planned behavior," Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, Elsevier, vol. 50(2), pages 179-211, December.
Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:respol:v:43:y:2014:i:3:p:476-494. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Zhang, Lei)

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.