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A Framework for Addressing and Measuring Entrepreneurship

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  • Nadim Ahmad
  • Anders Hoffman

Abstract

In recent years entrepreneurship has become a buzzword that?s entered the mainstream. Politicians continuously cite its importance and the need to create more entrepreneurial societies, and newspapers and television programmes frequently create themes around successful entrepreneurs. But, the pursuit and development of policies related to entrepreneurship are often hampered by the limited, albeit growing, empirical information relating to entrepreneurship (its size, factors and benefits). Therefore, in the absence of definitions that capture the essence of entrepreneurship, and entrepreneurship indicators that are internationally comparable, policy makers are left somewhat rudderless when it comes to developing policies, particularly when they relate to learning from international best-practice. These shortcomings and the growing importance of entrepreneurship in the policy domain have magnified the need for a sounder basis for internationally comparable indicators of entrepreneurship. This paper provides a framework that is intended to provide that sounder basis. It does so by adopting a holistic approach, and, so, by focusing on the: factors that impede or motivate entrepreneurship (determinants); measures that provide indicators of the state of entrepreneurship (entrepreneurial performance); and, outcomes (impacts) of that performance on the economy as a whole. Each of these three themes provides the overarching structure to the framework, using a standardised OECD definition of entrepreneurship, and, within each, we develop a suite of indicators that provide the basis for quantifiable information to be collected in an internationally comparable way for each of these themes. Cadre pour la présentation et la mesure de l'entrepreneuriat L’entrepreneuriat est devenu un terme incontournable ces dernières années, il est au coeur des préoccupations des décideurs politiques qui soulignent très régulièrement son importance et la nécessité de créer des sociétés plus entrepreneuriales. De même, journaux et émissions télévisées montent fréquemment des sujets autour d'entrepreneurs qui réussissent. Malgré cela, le développement de politiques liées à entrepreneuriat sont souvent entravés par les limites, quoique régulièrement repoussées, de l’information empirique disponible sur l?entrepreneuriat (sa taille, les facteurs l'encourageant et les avantages retirés). Ainsi, l'absence de définition communément admise sur l’essence de l'entrepreneuriat et d'indicateurs comparables au niveau international, laisse les décideurs politiques sans leviers de commande pour développer leur politiques économiques et ce, de façon plus prégnante encore lorsqu'il s'agit d'étudier les meilleurs pratiques internationales. Ces imperfections, ajoutées à l’importance croissante de l’entrepreneuriat sur la scène politique, ont renforcé le besoin de fondements plus solides au niveau international pour des indicateurs sur l'entrepreneuriat. Ce document apporte cette base solide en adoptant une approche holistique. Il rassemble les facteurs qui entravent ou encouragent l?entrepreneuriat (les déterminants) ; les mesures évaluant l'état de l'entrepreneuriat (les indicateurs de performance) ; et les résultats (l'impact économique). Ces trois thèmes structurent le cadre d'analyse et utilisent la définition standardisée de l'OCDE pour l'entrepreneuriat. Pour chacun de ces thèmes nous développons une suite d'indicateurs, donnant ainsi une base d’information statistique à collecter comparable au niveau international.

Suggested Citation

  • Nadim Ahmad & Anders Hoffman, 2008. "A Framework for Addressing and Measuring Entrepreneurship," OECD Statistics Working Papers 2008/2, OECD Publishing.
  • Handle: RePEc:oec:stdaaa:2008/2-en
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    File URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/243160627270
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    Cited by:

    1. Zoltan J. Acs & José Ernesto Amorós, 2008. "Introduction: The startup process," Estudios de Economia, University of Chile, Department of Economics, vol. 35(2 Year 20), pages 121-132, December.
    2. Son Ngoc Chu & Ligang Song, 2015. "Promoting Private Entrepreneurship for Deepening Market Reform in China: A Resource Allocation Perspective," China & World Economy, Institute of World Economics and Politics, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, vol. 23(1), pages 47-77, January.
    3. Nadia Albu & Ruxandra Adriana Mateescu, 2015. "The Relationship between Entrepreneurship and Corporate Governance The Case of Romanian listed Companies," The AMFITEATRU ECONOMIC journal, Academy of Economic Studies - Bucharest, Romania, vol. 17(38), pages 1-44, February.
    4. Radosevic, Slavo & Yoruk, Esin, 2013. "Entrepreneurial propensity of innovation systems: Theory, methodology and evidence," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 42(5), pages 1015-1038.
    5. Michael Peneder, 2009. "The Meaning of Entrepreneurship: A Modular Concept," Journal of Industry, Competition and Trade, Springer, vol. 9(2), pages 77-99, June.
    6. Hajek, Petr & Henriques, Roberto & Hajkova, Veronika, 2014. "Visualising components of regional innovation systems using self-organizing maps—Evidence from European regions," Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Elsevier, vol. 84(C), pages 197-214.
    7. Nir KSHETRI & Lailani L. ALCANTARA & Yonghoon PARK, 2014. "Development of a Smart City and its Adoption and Acceptance: the Case of New Songdo," Communications & Strategies, IDATE, Com&Strat dept., vol. 1(96), pages 113-128, 4th quart.
    8. Erkko Autio & Kun Fu, 2015. "Economic and political institutions and entry into formal and informal entrepreneurship," Asia Pacific Journal of Management, Springer, vol. 32(1), pages 67-94, March.
    9. José Ernesto Amorós & Pekka Stenholm, 2013. "The Influence of the Quality of Government Institutions on Entrepreneurial Motivation: Exploring the Variance across Countries," Working Papers 1401, Departament Empresa, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, revised Dec 2013.
    10. Amoros, Jose Ernesto, 2009. "Entrepreneurship and Quality of Institutions," WIDER Working Paper Series 007, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
    11. Kshetri, Nir, 2015. "Success of Crowd-based Online Technology in Fundraising: An Institutional Perspective," Journal of International Management, Elsevier, vol. 21(2), pages 100-116.
    12. Avanzini, Diego B., 2009. "Designing Composite Entrepreneurship Indicators: An Application Using Consensus PCA," WIDER Working Paper Series 041, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
    13. Zoltan Acs & Sameeksha Desai & Jolanda Hessels, 2008. "Entrepreneurship, economic development and institutions," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 31(3), pages 219-234, October.
    14. Pekka Stenholm & Zoltán J. Ács & Robert Wuebker, 2015. "Exploring country-level institutional arrangements on the rate and type of entrepreneurial activity," Chapters,in: Global Entrepreneurship, Institutions and Incentives, chapter 20, pages 387-404 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    15. Zoltán J. Ács & Erkko Autio & László Szerb, 2015. "National Systems of Entrepreneurship: Measurement issues and policy implications," Chapters,in: Global Entrepreneurship, Institutions and Incentives, chapter 28, pages 523-541 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    16. Szerb Laszlo A. & Acs Zoltan & Autio Erkko, 2013. "Entrepreneurship and Policy: The National System of Entrepreneurship in the European Union and in Its Member Countries," Entrepreneurship Research Journal, De Gruyter, vol. 3(1), pages 9-34, January.
    17. Goetz, Stephan J. & Partridge, Mark D. & Deller, Steven C. & Fleming, David A., 2010. "Evaluating U.S. Rural Entrepreneurship Policy," Journal of Regional Analysis and Policy, Mid-Continent Regional Science Association, vol. 0(Issue 1), pages 1-14.
    18. Bierwisch, Antje & Goluchowicz, Kerstin & Som, Oliver, 2014. "Stocktaking of activities in active aging and work environment in policy, science and industry — The German case," Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Elsevier, vol. 89(C), pages 343-357.
    19. Fiammetta Rossetti, 2017. "The Business Demography of the ICT Sector in Europe," JRC Working Papers JRC106589, Joint Research Centre (Seville site).
    20. repec:eee:tefoso:v:123:y:2017:i:c:p:229-239 is not listed on IDEAS
    21. Serge Lenga, 2013. "Un effet modérateur des processus cognitifs de l'entrepreneur sur les opportunités d'affaires situées dans l'espace géographique," Working Papers hal-00832027, HAL.

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