IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/kap/jtecht/v41y2016i6d10.1007_s10961-015-9452-5.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Labour as a knowledge carrier: how increased mobility influences entrepreneurship

Author

Listed:
  • Pontus Braunerhjelm

    () (KTH Royal Institute of Technology
    Swedish Entrepreneurship Forum)

  • Ding Ding

    (KTH Royal Institute of Technology)

  • Per Thulin

    (KTH Royal Institute of Technology
    Swedish Entrepreneurship Forum)

Abstract

Abstract According to the knowledge-based spillover theory of entrepreneurship (KSTE), entrepreneurship is positively associated with the knowledge endowment level. An increase in knowledge expands the opportunity set, which is then exploited by heterogeneous entrepreneurs. The objective of this paper is to empirically test the validity of the KSTE by employing a detailed database comprising more than 19 million observations for the period 2001–2008 at the level of individuals, firms and regions in Sweden. Knowledge is claimed to be partly embodied in labour, implying that an increase in labour mobility can be expected to influence knowledge endowment at the regional level. Our dependent variable is an individual who has remained in a region throughout the time period considered. Controlling for a number of other variables, inter-regional labour inflows and intra-regional mobility levels are shown to exert a strong positive effect on entrepreneurship. This contrasts with inter-regional outflows, which negatively affect entrepreneurial entry. Another noteworthy result is that the probability of exploiting an increased knowledge stock through entrepreneurship increases by 15 % points if the individual has previous experience in starting a firm.

Suggested Citation

  • Pontus Braunerhjelm & Ding Ding & Per Thulin, 2016. "Labour as a knowledge carrier: how increased mobility influences entrepreneurship," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 41(6), pages 1308-1326, December.
  • Handle: RePEc:kap:jtecht:v:41:y:2016:i:6:d:10.1007_s10961-015-9452-5
    DOI: 10.1007/s10961-015-9452-5
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s10961-015-9452-5
    File Function: Abstract
    Download Restriction: Access to full text is restricted to subscribers.

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version below or search for a different version of it.

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Romer, Paul M, 1986. "Increasing Returns and Long-run Growth," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 94(5), pages 1002-1037, October.
    2. Charlie Karlsson & Kristina Nyström, 2011. "Knowledge Accessibility and New Firm Formation," Chapters,in: New Directions in Regional Economic Development, chapter 9 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    3. Aghion, Philippe & Howitt, Peter, 1992. "A Model of Growth through Creative Destruction," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 60(2), pages 323-351, March.
    4. Erik Stam, 2013. "Knowledge and entrepreneurial employees: a country-level analysis," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 41(4), pages 887-898, December.
    5. Michael Fritsch & Ronney Aamoucke, 2013. "Regional public research, higher education, and innovative start-ups: an empirical investigation," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 41(4), pages 865-885, December.
    6. David B. Audretsch & Paula E. Stephan, 1999. "Knowledge spillovers in biotechnology: sources and incentives," Journal of Evolutionary Economics, Springer, vol. 9(1), pages 97-107.
    7. Edward L. Glaeser & William R. Kerr, 2009. "Local Industrial Conditions and Entrepreneurship: How Much of the Spatial Distribution Can We Explain?," Journal of Economics & Management Strategy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 18(3), pages 623-663, September.
    8. Zoltán J. Ács & Pontus Braunerhjelm & David B. Audretsch & Bo Carlsson, 2015. "The knowledge spillover theory of entrepreneurship," Chapters,in: Global Entrepreneurship, Institutions and Incentives, chapter 7, pages 129-144 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    9. Fritjof Karnani, 2013. "The university’s unknown knowledge: tacit knowledge, technology transfer and university spin-offs findings from an empirical study based on the theory of knowledge," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 38(3), pages 235-250, June.
    10. Bo Carlsson & Zoltán J. Ács & David B. Audretsch & Pontus Braunerhjelm, 2015. "Knowledge creation, entrepreneurship, and economic growth: a historical review," Chapters,in: Global Entrepreneurship, Institutions and Incentives, chapter 5, pages 71-107 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    11. Magnus Henrekson, 2005. "Entrepreneurship: a weak link in the welfare state?," Industrial and Corporate Change, Oxford University Press, vol. 14(3), pages 437-467, June.
    12. Parker,Simon C., 2009. "The Economics of Entrepreneurship," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521728355, March.
    13. Joern Block & Roy Thurik & Haibo Zhou, 2013. "What turns knowledge into innovative products? The role of entrepreneurship and knowledge spillovers," Journal of Evolutionary Economics, Springer, vol. 23(4), pages 693-718, September.
    14. C. Praag & Peter Versloot, 2007. "What is the value of entrepreneurship? A review of recent research," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 29(4), pages 351-382, December.
    15. Berglann, Helge & Moen, Espen R. & Røed, Knut & Skogstrøm, Jens Fredrik, 2011. "Entrepreneurship: Origins and returns," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 18(2), pages 180-193, April.
    16. T. W. Swan, 1956. "ECONOMIC GROWTH and CAPITAL ACCUMULATION," The Economic Record, The Economic Society of Australia, vol. 32(2), pages 334-361, November.
    17. David B. Audretsch (ed.), 2006. "Entrepreneurship, Innovation and Economic Growth," Books, Edward Elgar Publishing, number 4130.
    18. Zoltán J. Ács & Mark W. J. L. Sanders, 2015. "Knowledge spillover entrepreneurship in an endogenous growth model," Chapters,in: Global Entrepreneurship, Institutions and Incentives, chapter 10, pages 174-194 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    19. Giuseppe Criaco & Tommaso Minola & Pablo Migliorini & Christian Serarols-Tarrés, 2014. "“To have and have not”: founders’ human capital and university start-up survival," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 39(4), pages 567-593, August.
    20. Davidsson, Per & Honig, Benson, 2003. "The role of social and human capital among nascent entrepreneurs," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 18(3), pages 301-331, May.
    21. Martin Andersson & Karin Hellerstedt, 2009. "Location Attributes and Start-ups in Knowledge-Intensive Business Services," Industry and Innovation, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 16(1), pages 103-121.
    22. Shiri Breznitz & Maryann Feldman, 2012. "The engaged university," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 37(2), pages 139-157, April.
    23. Wennberg, Karl & Wiklund, Johan & Wright, Mike, 2011. "The effectiveness of university knowledge spillovers: Performance differences between university spinoffs and corporate spinoffs," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 40(8), pages 1128-1143, October.
    24. Scott Shane, 2001. "Technology Regimes and New Firm Formation," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 47(9), pages 1173-1190, September.
    25. Manuel Acosta & Daniel Coronado & Esther Flores, 2011. "University spillovers and new business location in high-technology sectors: Spanish evidence," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 36(3), pages 365-376, April.
    26. Romer, Paul M, 1990. "Endogenous Technological Change," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 98(5), pages 71-102, October.
    27. Zoltán J. Ács & Mark Sanders, 2015. "Patents, knowledge spillovers, and entrepreneurship," Chapters,in: Global Entrepreneurship, Institutions and Incentives, chapter 11, pages 195-212 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    28. Lindbeck, Assar & Snower, Dennis J, 1989. "Macroeconomic Policy and Insider Power," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 79(2), pages 370-376, May.
    29. Frank Lasch & Frank Robert & Frédéric Roy, 2013. "Regional determinants of ICT new firm formation," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 40(3), pages 671-686, April.
    30. Zucker, Lynne G & Darby, Michael R & Armstrong, Jeff, 1998. "Geographically Localized Knowledge: Spillovers or Markets?," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 36(1), pages 65-86, January.
    31. Lawrence A. Plummer & Zoltán J. Ács, 2015. "Localized competition in the knowledge spillover theory of entrepreneurship," Chapters,in: Global Entrepreneurship, Institutions and Incentives, chapter 8, pages 145-160 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    32. Kristina Nyström, 2012. "Labor mobility and entrepreneurship: who do new firms employ?," Chapters,in: Entrepreneurship, Social Capital and Governance, chapter 5, pages 102-114 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    33. Audretsch, David B. & Keilbach, Max C. & Lehmann, Erik E., 2006. "Entrepreneurship and Economic Growth," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780195183511.
    34. Audretsch, David B., 2009. "Entrepreneurship capital and economic growth," INVESTIGACIONES REGIONALES - Journal of REGIONAL RESEARCH, Asociación Española de Ciencia Regional, issue 15, pages 27-45.
    35. Christopher Hayter, 2013. "Conceptualizing knowledge-based entrepreneurship networks: perspectives from the literature," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 41(4), pages 899-911, December.
    36. Niccolò Ghio & Massimiliano Guerini & Erik Lehmann & Cristina Rossi-Lamastra, 2015. "The emergence of the knowledge spillover theory of entrepreneurship," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 44(1), pages 1-18, January.
    37. Baumol, William J., 1996. "Entrepreneurship: Productive, unproductive, and destructive," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 11(1), pages 3-22, January.
    38. Audretsch, David B. & Lehmann, Erik E., 2005. "Does the Knowledge Spillover Theory of Entrepreneurship hold for regions?," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 34(8), pages 1191-1202, October.
    39. Michael Stuetzer & Martin Obschonka & Udo Brixy & Rolf Sternberg & Uwe Cantner, 2014. "Regional characteristics, opportunity perception and entrepreneurial activities," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 42(2), pages 221-244, February.
    40. Pontus Braunerhjelm & Zoltán J. Ács & David B. Audretsch & Bo Carlsson, 2015. "The missing link: knowledge diffusion and entrepreneurship in endogenous growth," Chapters,in: Global Entrepreneurship, Institutions and Incentives, chapter 6, pages 108-128 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    41. Haifeng Qian & Zoltán J. Ács, 2015. "An absorptive capacity theory of knowledge spillover entrepreneurship," Chapters,in: Global Entrepreneurship, Institutions and Incentives, chapter 9, pages 161-173 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    42. Falck, Oliver & Gold, Robert & Heblich, Stephan, . "Entrepreneurship education," Chapters in Economics, University of Munich, Department of Economics.
    43. Williamson, Oliver E, 1971. "The Vertical Integration of Production: Market Failure Considerations," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 61(2), pages 112-123, May.
    44. Apostolos Baltzopoulos & Pontus Braunerhjelm & Ioannis Tikoudis, 2016. "Spin-offs: why geography matters," Journal of Economic Geography, Oxford University Press, vol. 16(2), pages 273-303.
    45. Parker,Simon C., 2009. "The Economics of Entrepreneurship," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521899604, March.
    46. Frederic Delmar & Per Davidsson, 2000. "Where do they come from? Prevalence and characteristics of nascent entrepreneurs," Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 12(1), pages 1-23, January.
    47. Jun Koo & Kwang‐Rae Cho, 2011. "New Firm Formation and Industry Clusters: A Case of the Drugs Industry in the U.S," Growth and Change, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 42(2), pages 179-199, June.
    48. Zoltan Acs & David Audretsch & Pontus Braunerhjelm & Bo Carlsson, 2012. "Growth and entrepreneurship," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 39(2), pages 289-300, September.
    49. Ouimet, Paige & Zarutskie, Rebecca, 2014. "Who works for startups? The relation between firm age, employee age, and growth," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 112(3), pages 386-407.
    50. Birley, Sue, 1985. "The role of networks in the entrepreneurial process," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 1(1), pages 107-117.
    51. Braunerhjelm, Pontus & Ding, Ding & Thulin, Per, 2015. "Does Labour Mobility Foster Innovation? Evidence from Sweden," Working Paper Series in Economics and Institutions of Innovation 403, Royal Institute of Technology, CESIS - Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies.
    52. David Audretsch & Maksim Belitski, 2013. "The missing pillar: the creativity theory of knowledge spillover entrepreneurship," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 41(4), pages 819-836, December.
    53. Lucas, Robert Jr., 1988. "On the mechanics of economic development," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 22(1), pages 3-42, July.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Fredriksen, Lars & Wennberg, Karl & Balachandran, Chanchal, 2015. "Mobility and Entrepreneurship: Evaluating the scope of knowledge-based theories of entrepreneurship," Ratio Working Papers 266, The Ratio Institute.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Entrepreneurship; Knowledge-based spillover theory of entrepreneurship; Knowledge diffusion; Labour mobility;

    JEL classification:

    • J61 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Mobility, Unemployment, Vacancies, and Immigrant Workers - - - Geographic Labor Mobility; Immigrant Workers
    • L26 - Industrial Organization - - Firm Objectives, Organization, and Behavior - - - Entrepreneurship
    • O33 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Innovation; Research and Development; Technological Change; Intellectual Property Rights - - - Technological Change: Choices and Consequences; Diffusion Processes

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:kap:jtecht:v:41:y:2016:i:6:d:10.1007_s10961-015-9452-5. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Sonal Shukla) or (Rebekah McClure). General contact details of provider: http://www.springer.com .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.