Multi-step sales forecasting in automotive industry based on structural relationship identification
Forecasting sales and demand over 6–24 month horizon is crucial for planning the production processes of automotive and other complex product industries (e.g., electronics and heavy equipment) where typical concept-to-release times are 12–60 month long. However, nonlinear and nonstationary evolution and dependencies with diverse macroeconomic variables hinder accurate long-term prediction of the future of automotive sales. In this paper, a structural relationship identification methodology that uses a battery of statistical unit root, weakly exogeneity, Granger-causality and cointegration tests, is presented to identify the dynamic couplings among automobile sales and economic indicators. Our empirical analysis indicates that automobile sales at segment levels have a long-run equilibrium relationship (cointegration) with identified economic indicators. A vector error correction model (VECM) of multi-segment automobile sales was estimated based on impulse response functions to quantify long-term impact of these economic indicators on sales. Comparisons of prediction accuracy demonstrate that VECM model outperforms other classical and advanced time-series techniques. The empirical results suggest that VECM can significantly improve prediction accuracy of automotive sales for 12-month ahead prediction in terms of RMSE (42.73%) and MAPE (42.25%), compared to the classical time series techniques.
Volume (Year): 140 (2012)
Issue (Month): 2 ()
|Contact details of provider:|| Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/ijpe|
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Danese, Pamela & Kalchschmidt, Matteo, 2011. "The role of the forecasting process in improving forecast accuracy and operational performance," International Journal of Production Economics, Elsevier, vol. 131(1), pages 204-214, May.
- Greenslade, Jennifer V. & Hall, Stephen G. & Henry, S. G. Brian, 2002. "On the identification of cointegrated systems in small samples: a modelling strategy with an application to UK wages and prices," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 26(9-10), pages 1517-1537, August.
- Armstrong, J. Scott & Morwitz, Vicki G. & Kumar, V., 2000. "Sales forecasts for existing consumer products and services: Do purchase intentions contribute to accuracy?," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 16(3), pages 383-397.
- Hiemstra, Craig & Jones, Jonathan D, 1994. " Testing for Linear and Nonlinear Granger Causality in the Stock Price-Volume Relation," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 49(5), pages 1639-64, December.
- Bénédicte Vidaillet & V. D'Estaintot & P. Abécassis, 2005. "Introduction," Post-Print hal-00287137, HAL.
- Johansen, Soren, 1992.
"Testing weak exogeneity and the order of cointegration in UK money demand data,"
Journal of Policy Modeling,
Elsevier, vol. 14(3), pages 313-334, June.
- Johansen, S., 1991. "Testing Weak Exogeneity and the Order of Cointegration in UK Money Demand Data," Papers 78, Helsinki - Department of Economics.
- Johansen, Soren, 1988. "Statistical analysis of cointegration vectors," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 12(2-3), pages 231-254.
- Johansen, Soren, 1991. "Estimation and Hypothesis Testing of Cointegration Vectors in Gaussian Vector Autoregressive Models," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 59(6), pages 1551-80, November.
- Engle, Robert F & Granger, Clive W J, 1987.
"Co-integration and Error Correction: Representation, Estimation, and Testing,"
Econometric Society, vol. 55(2), pages 251-76, March.
- Engle, Robert & Granger, Clive, 2015. "Co-integration and error correction: Representation, estimation, and testing," Applied Econometrics, Publishing House "SINERGIA PRESS", vol. 39(3), pages 106-135.
- Johansen, Soren & Juselius, Katarina, 1990. "Maximum Likelihood Estimation and Inference on Cointegration--With Applications to the Demand for Money," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 52(2), pages 169-210, May.
- Samarjit Das, 2003. "Modelling money, price and output in India: a vector autoregressive and moving average (VARMA) approach," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 35(10), pages 1219-1225.
- Berkovec, James, 1985. "Forecasting automobile demand using disaggregate choice models," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 19(4), pages 315-329, August.
- G. Dekimpe, Marnik & Hanssens, Dominique M. & Silva-Risso, Jorge M., 1998. "Long-run effects of price promotions in scanner markets," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 89(1-2), pages 269-291, November.
- Jan R. Landwehr & Aparna A. Labroo & Andreas Herrmann, 2011. "Gut Liking for the Ordinary: Incorporating Design Fluency Improves Automobile Sales Forecasts," Marketing Science, INFORMS, vol. 30(3), pages 416-429, 05-06.
- Chu, Ching-Wu & Zhang, Guoqiang Peter, 2003. "A comparative study of linear and nonlinear models for aggregate retail sales forecasting," International Journal of Production Economics, Elsevier, vol. 86(3), pages 217-231, December.
- Luxhoj, James T. & Riis, Jens O. & Stensballe, Brian, 1996. "A hybrid econometric--neural network modeling approach for sales forecasting," International Journal of Production Economics, Elsevier, vol. 43(2-3), pages 175-192, June.
- Mannering, Fred L. & Train, Kenneth, 1985. "Recent directions in automobile demand modeling," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 19(4), pages 265-274, August.
- Johansen, Søren, 1995.
"A Stastistical Analysis of Cointegration for I(2) Variables,"
Cambridge University Press, vol. 11(01), pages 25-59, February.
- Johansen, S., 1991. "A Statistical Analsysis of Cointegration for I(2) Variables," Papers 77, Helsinki - Department of Economics.
- Granger, C. W. J., 1988. "Causality, cointegration, and control," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 12(2-3), pages 551-559.
- Alan Greenspan & Darrel Cohen, 1996.
"Motor vehicle stocks, scrappage, and sales,"
Finance and Economics Discussion Series
96-40, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
- Urbain, Jean-Pierre, 1992.
"On Weak Exogeneity in Error Correction Models,"
Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics,
Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 54(2), pages 187-207, May.
- Vincent R. Nijs & Marnik G. Dekimpe & Jan-Benedict E.M. Steenkamps & Dominique M. Hanssens, 2001. "The Category-Demand Effects of Price Promotions," Marketing Science, INFORMS, vol. 20(1), pages 1-22, September.
- Dickey, David A & Fuller, Wayne A, 1981. "Likelihood Ratio Statistics for Autoregressive Time Series with a Unit Root," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 49(4), pages 1057-72, June.
- Granger, Clive W. J. & Huangb, Bwo-Nung & Yang, Chin-Wei, 2000.
"A bivariate causality between stock prices and exchange rates: evidence from recent Asianflu,"
The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance,
Elsevier, vol. 40(3), pages 337-354.
- Granger, Clive W.J. & Huang, Bwo-Nung & Yang, Chin W., 1998. "A Bivariate Causality between Stock Prices and Exchange Rates: Evidence from Recent Asia Flu," University of California at San Diego, Economics Working Paper Series qt9bk607p6, Department of Economics, UC San Diego.
- Walter McManus, 2007. "The Link Between Gasoline Prices and Vehicle Sales," Business Economics, Palgrave Macmillan;National Association for Business Economics, vol. 42(1), pages 53-60, January.
- Marnik G. Dekimpe & Dominique M. Hanssens, 1995. "The Persistence of Marketing Effects on Sales," Marketing Science, INFORMS, vol. 14(1), pages 1-21.
- Sims, Christopher A, 1980. "Macroeconomics and Reality," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 48(1), pages 1-48, January.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:proeco:v:140:y:2012:i:2:p:875-887. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Shamier, Wendy)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.