IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/crt/wpaper/0104.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Common Stochastic Trends In International Stock Markets: Testing In An Integrated Framework

Author

Listed:
  • Dimitris Georgoutsos
  • George Kouretas

    (Department of Economics, University of Crete, Greece)

Abstract

In this paper we analyze the implications for the identification of common stochastic trends among stock price indices of using data transformed on a ”real dollar” basis. By applying a “general” VAR model where all the relevant variables (stock indices, consumer price indices and the exchange rate) are included, we show that the expected results from the cointegration analysis differ substantially. In particular it is shown that if four common stochastic trends drive the system then cointegration between the indices transformed in nominal dollars should be the relevant test while the use of their “real dollars equivalent” is superfluous. In cases where three common stochastic trends exist then a reasonable specification of the model would imply that the Purchasing Power Parity condition accounts for one of them while the second one relates to a cointegrating relation between the stock indices in nominal domestic currency terms. We apply the testing methodology developed by Johansen (1992a, 1995a, 1997) and extended by Paruolo (1996) and Rahbek et al. (1999) to examine the presence of I(2) and I(1) components in a multivariate context using monthly data for the US, UK, Germany and Japan for the period 1980 – 2000. Four possible economic scenarios were considered in a bivariate setting and two of them were found to be statistically supported. By imposing linear restrictions on each cointegrating vector as suggested by Johansen and Juselius (1994), the order and rank conditions for statistical identification are satisfied while the test for economic identification was not significant for each bilateral case, namely US-UK, US-Germany, US-Japan. The main findings suggest that the policy to transform the data into a “real” dollar basis, which is often encountered in the literature, lacks empirical support. Furthermore, the stability results indicate that cointegration was established in the early 1990s which implies that some form of policy coordination between the G-7 countries was implemented in the aftermath of the October 1987 crisis.

Suggested Citation

  • Dimitris Georgoutsos & George Kouretas, 2001. "Common Stochastic Trends In International Stock Markets: Testing In An Integrated Framework," Working Papers 0104, University of Crete, Department of Economics.
  • Handle: RePEc:crt:wpaper:0104
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://economics.soc.uoc.gr/wpa/docs/cst.pdf
    File Function: First version
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Rudiger Dornbusch, 1988. "Real Exchange Rates and Macroeconomics: A Selective Survey," NBER Working Papers 2775, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    2. Johansen, Soren & Schaumburg, Ernst, 1998. "Likelihood analysis of seasonal cointegration," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 88(2), pages 301-339, November.
    3. Kenneth Kasa, 1995. "Comovements among national stock markets," Economic Review, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco, pages 14-20.
    4. Katarina Juselius, 1999. "Models and relations in economics and econometrics," Journal of Economic Methodology, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 6(2), pages 259-290.
    5. Johansen, Søren, 1995. "A Stastistical Analysis of Cointegration for I(2) Variables," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 11(1), pages 25-59, February.
    6. Paruolo, Paolo, 1996. "On the determination of integration indices in I(2) systems," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 72(1-2), pages 313-356.
    7. Johansen, Soren & Juselius, Katarina, 1990. "Maximum Likelihood Estimation and Inference on Cointegration--With Applications to the Demand for Money," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 52(2), pages 169-210, May.
    8. Juselius, Katarina, 1995. "Do purchasing power parity and uncovered interest rate parity hold in the long run? An example of likelihood inference in a multivariate time-series model," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 69(1), pages 211-240, September.
    9. Richards, Anthony J., 1995. "Comovements in national stock market returns: Evidence of predictability, but not cointegration," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 36(3), pages 631-654, December.
    10. Lucas, Robert Jr., 1982. "Interest rates and currency prices in a two-country world," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 10(3), pages 335-359.
    11. Serletis, Apostolos & King, Martin, 1997. "Common Stochastic Trends and Convergence of European Union Stock Markets," The Manchester School of Economic & Social Studies, University of Manchester, vol. 65(1), pages 44-57, January.
    12. Johansen, Soren & Juselius, Katarina, 1994. "Identification of the long-run and the short-run structure an application to the ISLM model," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 63(1), pages 7-36, July.
    13. Engle, Robert & Granger, Clive, 2015. "Co-integration and error correction: Representation, estimation, and testing," Applied Econometrics, Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA), vol. 39(3), pages 106-135.
    14. Kasa, Kenneth, 1992. "Common stochastic trends in international stock markets," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 29(1), pages 95-124, February.
    15. Dornbusch, Rudiger, 1989. " Real Exchange Rates and Macroeconomics: A Selective Survey," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 91(2), pages 401-432.
    16. Corhay, A. & Tourani Rad, A. & Urbain, J. -P., 1993. "Common stochastic trends in European stock markets," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 42(4), pages 385-390.
    17. Eun, Cheol S. & Shim, Sangdal, 1989. "International Transmission of Stock Market Movements," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 24(2), pages 241-256, June.
    18. Johansen, Soren, 1991. "Estimation and Hypothesis Testing of Cointegration Vectors in Gaussian Vector Autoregressive Models," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 59(6), pages 1551-1580, November.
    19. Gonzalo, Jesus, 1994. "Five alternative methods of estimating long-run equilibrium relationships," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 60(1-2), pages 203-233.
    20. King, Mervyn & Sentana, Enrique & Wadhwani, Sushil, 1994. "Volatility and Links between National Stock Markets," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 62(4), pages 901-933, July.
    21. Johansen, Soren, 1988. "Statistical analysis of cointegration vectors," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 12(2-3), pages 231-254.
    22. Johansen, Soren, 1995. "Identifying restrictions of linear equations with applications to simultaneous equations and cointegration," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 69(1), pages 111-132, September.
    23. Johansen, Soren, 1992. "Determination of Cointegration Rank in the Presence of a Linear Trend," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 54(3), pages 383-397, August.
    24. Henrik Hansen & Søren Johansen, 1999. "Some tests for parameter constancy in cointegrated VAR-models," Econometrics Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 2(2), pages 306-333.
    25. Sims, Christopher A, 1980. "Macroeconomics and Reality," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 48(1), pages 1-48, January.
    26. Lee, Tae-Hwy & Tse, Yiuman, 1996. "Cointegration tests with conditional heteroskedasticity," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 73(2), pages 401-410, August.
    27. Francis, Bill B. & Leachman, Lori L., 1998. "Superexogeneity and the dynamic linkages among international equity markets," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 17(3), pages 475-492, June.
    28. Pantula, Sastry G., 1989. "Testing for Unit Roots in Time Series Data," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 5(2), pages 256-271, August.
    29. Bracker, Kevin & Docking, Diane Scott & Koch, Paul D., 1999. "Economic determinants of evolution in international stock market integration," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 6(1), pages 1-27, January.
    30. Granger, Clive W J, 1986. "Developments in the Study of Cointegrated Economic Variables," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 48(3), pages 213-228, August.
    31. Leachman, Lori L. & Francis, Bill, 1995. "Long-run relations among the G-5 and G-7 equity markets: Evidence on the Plaza and Louvre Accords," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 17(4), pages 551-577.
    32. Johansen, Søren & Juselius, Katarina, 1992. "Testing structural hypotheses in a multivariate cointegration analysis of the PPP and the UIP for UK," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 53(1-3), pages 211-244.
    33. Johansen, Søren, 1992. "A Representation of Vector Autoregressive Processes Integrated of Order 2," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 8(2), pages 188-202, June.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. B Harrison & W Moore, 2010. "Stock Market Co-Movement in the Caribbean," Economic Issues Journal Articles, Economic Issues, vol. 15(1), pages 1-15, March.
    2. Eleni Constantinou & Avo Kazandjian & George Kouretas & Vera Tahmazian, 2005. "Cointegration, causality and domestic portfolio diversification in the Cyprus Stock Exchange," Working Papers 0522, University of Crete, Department of Economics.
    3. Eleni Constantinou & Avo Kazandjian & Georgios P. Kouretas & Vera Tahmazian, 2008. "Common Stochastic Trends Among The Cyprus Stock Exchange And The Ase, Lse And Nyse," Bulletin of Economic Research, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 60(4), pages 327-349, October.
    4. Patricia Fraser & Oluwatobi Oyefeso, 2005. "US, UK and European Stock Market Integration," Journal of Business Finance & Accounting, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 32(1-2), pages 161-181.
    5. Patricia Fraser & Oluwatobi Oyefeso, 2005. "US, UK and European Stock Market Integration," Journal of Business Finance & Accounting, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 32(1‐2), pages 161-181, January.
    6. Diamandis, Panayiotis F., 2009. "International stock market linkages: Evidence from Latin America," Global Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 20(1), pages 13-30.
    7. Parul Bhatia & Hemalatha Ramasubramanian, 2019. "Co-integration Between Sensex and Other Popular Indices: A Decadal Study," FIIB Business Review, , vol. 8(2), pages 108-117, June.
    8. Manolis Syllignakis & Georgios Kouretas, 2006. "Long And Short-Run Linkages In Cee Stock Markets: Implications For Portfolio Diversification And Stock Market Integration," William Davidson Institute Working Papers Series wp832, William Davidson Institute at the University of Michigan.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Eleni Constantinou & Avo Kazandjian & Georgios P. Kouretas & Vera Tahmazian, 2008. "Common Stochastic Trends Among The Cyprus Stock Exchange And The Ase, Lse And Nyse," Bulletin of Economic Research, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 60(4), pages 327-349, October.
    2. Panayiotis Diamantis & Dimitris Georgoutsos & George Kouretas, 2001. "The Monetary Approach in the Presence of I(2) Components: A Cointegration Analysis of the Official and Black Market for Foreign Currency in Latin America," Working Papers 0108, University of Crete, Department of Economics.
    3. Diamandis, Panayiotis F., 2009. "International stock market linkages: Evidence from Latin America," Global Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 20(1), pages 13-30.
    4. Diamandis, Panayiotis F. & Georgoutsos, Dimitris A. & Kouretas, Georgios P., 2000. "The monetary model in the presence of I(2) components: long-run relationships, short-run dynamics and forecasting of the Greek drachma," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 19(6), pages 917-941, December.
    5. Diamandis, Panayiotis F., 2003. "Market efficiency, purchasing power parity, and the official and parallel markets for foreign currency in Latin America," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 12(1), pages 89-110.
    6. Kouretas, Georgios P. & Yannopoulos, Andreas, 2006. "Dynamic modelling of trade union behaviour: Evidence from the Greek manufacturing sector," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 23(2), pages 316-338, March.
    7. Dimitris Georgoutsos & Georgios Kouretas, 2004. "A Multivariate I(2) cointegration analysis of German hyperinflation," Applied Financial Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 14(1), pages 29-41.
    8. Bessler, David A. & Yang, Jian, 2003. "The structure of interdependence in international stock markets," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 22(2), pages 261-287, April.
    9. Georgios Kouretas & Leonidas Zarangas, 2001. "Long-Run Purchasing Power Parity and Structural Change: The Official and Parallel Foreign Exchange Markets For Dollars In Greece," International Economic Journal, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 15(3), pages 109-128.
    10. Diamandis, Panayiotis F. & Georgoutsos, Dimitris A. & Kouretas, Georgios P., 1998. "The Monetary Approach to the Exchange Rate: Long-Run Relationships, Identification and Temporal Stability," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 20(4), pages 741-766, October.
    11. Kouretas, Georgios P. & Zarangas, Leonidas P., 2001. "Black and official exchange rates in Greece: an analysis of their long-run dynamics," Journal of Multinational Financial Management, Elsevier, vol. 11(3), pages 295-314, July.
    12. Kouretas, Georgios P. & Zarangas, Leonidas P., 2000. "Wage Setting, Taxes, and Demand for Labor in Greece: A Multivariate Analysis of Cointegrating Relationships," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 22(2), pages 171-195, March.
    13. Eleni Constantinou & Avo Kazandjian & George Kouretas & Vera Tahmazian, 2005. "Cointegration, causality and domestic portfolio diversification in the Cyprus Stock Exchange," Working Papers 0522, University of Crete, Department of Economics.
    14. Giorgio Canarella & Stephen M. Miller & Stephen K. Pollard, 2008. "Dynamic Stock Market Interactions between the Canadian, Mexican, and the United States Markets: The NAFTA Experience," Working papers 2008-49, University of Connecticut, Department of Economics.
    15. Norman J. Morin, 2006. "Likelihood ratio tests on cointegrating vectors, disequilibrium adjustment vectors, and their orthogonal complements," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2006-21, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
    16. Phengpis, Chanwit & Apilado, Vince P., 2004. "Economic interdependence and common stochastic trends: A comparative analysis between EMU and non-EMU stock markets," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 13(3), pages 245-263.
    17. H. Peter Boswijk & Jurgen A. Doornik, 2004. "Identifying, estimating and testing restricted cointegrated systems: An overview," Statistica Neerlandica, Netherlands Society for Statistics and Operations Research, vol. 58(4), pages 440-465, November.
    18. Diamandis, Panayiotis F. & Drakos, Anastassios A., 2005. "Long-run dynamics of official and black-market exchange rates in Latin America," Global Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 15(3), pages 219-237, February.
    19. Panayiotis Diamandis & Georgios Kouretas & Leonidas Zarangas, 2005. "Expectations and the black market premium for foreign currency in Greece," Applied Financial Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 15(10), pages 667-677.
    20. Masih, Abul M. M. & Masih, Rumi, 1999. "Are Asian stock market fluctuations due mainly to intra-regional contagion effects? Evidence based on Asian emerging stock markets," Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 7(3-4), pages 251-282, August.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    International stock markets; I(2) cointegration analysis; commom trends; identification; purchasing;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • G15 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - International Financial Markets
    • G12 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - Asset Pricing; Trading Volume; Bond Interest Rates
    • G32 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - Financing Policy; Financial Risk and Risk Management; Capital and Ownership Structure; Value of Firms; Goodwill

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:crt:wpaper:0104. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/deuchgr.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Kostis Pigounakis (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/deuchgr.html .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.