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Modelling money, price and output in India: a vector autoregressive and moving average (VARMA) approach

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  • Samarjit Das

Abstract

The present study has two purposes. First, the study examines the most substantive and debatable question: Is there any long-run relationship among money, price and output? It has been found by applying different tests of cointegration that there is no long-run relationship among these three variables in cointegration sense. Second, having ascertained that the variables under study are not cointegrated, an attempt is made to explore the short-run relationship among money, price and output exploiting the characteristics of the Vector Autoregressive and Moving Average (VARMA) model. Sub-set concept has been used to identify the best-fitted VARMA model. The paper concludes the following: (i) both money and price affect each other and there exists bi-directional causality; (ii) output affects price and there is also feedback between price and output; and (iii) money unidirectionally affects output. Various consequences of cointegration on parameter estimates of pure VAR/VARMA in difference have been discussed. Here it may be mentioned that pure VAR/VARMA in differences is not misspecified, as it could have been otherwise in the case where variables are cointegrated. However, as VARMA is more parsimonious than VAR, the VARMA model has been considered here. Attention has been paid regarding the proper transformations of the variables.

Suggested Citation

  • Samarjit Das, 2003. "Modelling money, price and output in India: a vector autoregressive and moving average (VARMA) approach," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 35(10), pages 1219-1225.
  • Handle: RePEc:taf:applec:v:35:y:2003:i:10:p:1219-1225
    DOI: 10.1080/0003684032000090726
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Ball, Laurence & Chari, Anusha & Mishra, Prachi, 2016. "Understanding Inflation in India," India Policy Forum, National Council of Applied Economic Research, vol. 12(1), pages 1-45.
    2. Rasool, Haroon & Adil, Masudul Hasan & Tarique, Md, 2018. "An Empirical Evidence of Dynamic Interaction among price level, interest rate, money supply and real income: The case of the Indian Economy," MPRA Paper 87452, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    3. Lee, Chin, 2013. "The Role of Macroeconomic Fundamentals in Malaysian Post Recession Growth," MPRA Paper 44808, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    4. Cuneyt Dumrul & Yasemin Dumrul, 2015. "Price-Money Relationship after Infl ation Targeting: Co-integration Test with Structural Breaks for Turkey and Brazil," International Journal of Economics and Financial Issues, Econjournals, vol. 5(3), pages 701-708.
    5. Sa-ngasoongsong, Akkarapol & Bukkapatnam, Satish T.S. & Kim, Jaebeom & Iyer, Parameshwaran S. & Suresh, R.P., 2012. "Multi-step sales forecasting in automotive industry based on structural relationship identification," International Journal of Production Economics, Elsevier, vol. 140(2), pages 875-887.
    6. Tafajul Hossain & Biswajit Maitra, 2020. "Monetary Policy, Trade Openness and Economic Growth in India Under Monetary-targeting and Multiple-indicator Approach Regimes," Arthaniti: Journal of Economic Theory and Practice, , vol. 19(1), pages 108-124, June.

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