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Understanding Inflation in India

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  • Ball, Laurence
  • Chari, Anusha
  • Mishra, Prachi

Abstract

This paper examines the behavior of quarterly inflation in India since 1994, both headline inflation and core inflation, as measured by the weighted median of price changes across industries. We explain core inflation with a Phillips curve in which the inflation rate depends on a slow-moving average of past inflation and on the deviation of output from its long-run trend. Headline inflation is more volatile than core: it fluctuates due to large changes in the relative prices of certain industries, which are largely but not exclusively industries that produce food and energy. There is some evidence that changes in headline inflation feed into expected inflation and future core inflation. Several aspects of India’s inflation process are similar to inflation in advanced economies in the 1970s and 1980s.

Suggested Citation

  • Ball, Laurence & Chari, Anusha & Mishra, Prachi, 2016. "Understanding Inflation in India," India Policy Forum, National Council of Applied Economic Research, vol. 12(1), pages 1-45.
  • Handle: RePEc:nca:ncaerj:v:12:y:2016:i:2016-1:p:1-45
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Laurence Ball & Sandeep Mazumder, 2019. "A Phillips Curve with Anchored Expectations and Short‐Term Unemployment," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 51(1), pages 111-137, February.
    2. Michael Debabrata Patra & Muneesh Kapur, 2012. "A monetary policy model for India," Macroeconomics and Finance in Emerging Market Economies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 5(1), pages 18-41, March.
    3. Kapur, Muneesh, 2013. "Revisiting the Phillips curve for India and inflation forecasting," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 25(C), pages 17-27.
    4. Laurence Ball & N. Gregory Mankiw, 1995. "Relative-Price Changes as Aggregate Supply Shocks," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 110(1), pages 161-193.
    5. Mishra, Prachi & Roy, Devesh, 2012. "Explaining Inflation in India: The Role of Food Prices," India Policy Forum, National Council of Applied Economic Research, vol. 8(1), pages 139-224.
    6. Samarjit Das, 2003. "Modelling money, price and output in India: a vector autoregressive and moving average (VARMA) approach," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 35(10), pages 1219-1225.
    7. James H. Stock & Mark W. Watson, 2007. "Why Has U.S. Inflation Become Harder to Forecast?," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 39(s1), pages 3-33, February.
    8. D. M. Nachane & R. Lakshmi, 2002. "Dynamics of inflation in India - a P-Star approach," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 34(1), pages 101-110.
    9. Subir Gokarn, 1997. "Economic reforms and relative price movements in India: a 'supply shock' approach," The Journal of International Trade & Economic Development, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 6(2), pages 299-324.
    10. Mazumder, Sandeep, 2011. "The stability of the Phillips curve in India: Does the Lucas critique apply?," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 22(6), pages 528-539.
    11. Subir Gokarn, 2011. "The price of protein," Macroeconomics and Finance in Emerging Market Economies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 4(2), pages 327-335, July.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Pulapre Balakrishnan & M. Parameswaran, 2019. "Modeling the Dynamics of Inflation in India," Working Papers 16, Ashoka University, Department of Economics.
    2. Pulapre Balakrishnan & M. Parameswaran, 2019. "Modeling the Dynamics of Inflation in India," Working Papers 1023, Ashoka University, Department of Economics.
    3. Das, Abhiman & Lahiri, Kajal & Zhao, Yongchen, 2019. "Inflation expectations in India: Learning from household tendency surveys," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 35(3), pages 980-993.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Inflation; Phillips Curve; India;

    JEL classification:

    • E31 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Prices, Business Fluctuations, and Cycles - - - Price Level; Inflation; Deflation
    • E37 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Prices, Business Fluctuations, and Cycles - - - Forecasting and Simulation: Models and Applications
    • E52 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit - - - Monetary Policy

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