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Wagner versus Keynes: Public spending and national income in Italy

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  • Magazzino, Cosimo

Abstract

Wagner's Law is the first model of public spending in the history of public finance. The aim of this study is to assess its empirical evidence in Italy for the period 1960–2008 at a disaggregated level, using a time series approach. After a brief introduction, a survey of the economic literature on this issue is shown, before estimating the specifications of Wagner's Law for some specific items of public spending (for interests, for final consumption, for labor dependent income, for grants on production, and for public investments), according to the Bank of Italy classification. We found a cointegration relationship for three out of five items. Moreover, results from Granger causality tests show evidence in favor of Wagner's Law only for passive interests spending in the long-run, and for dependent labor income spending in the short-run. Some notes on the policy implications of our empirical results conclude the paper.

Suggested Citation

  • Magazzino, Cosimo, 2012. "Wagner versus Keynes: Public spending and national income in Italy," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 34(6), pages 890-905.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:jpolmo:v:34:y:2012:i:6:p:890-905
    DOI: 10.1016/j.jpolmod.2012.05.012
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    3. Cavicchioli, Maddalena & Pistoresi, Barbara, 2016. "Testing threshold cointegration in Wagner's Law: The role of military spending," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 59(C), pages 23-31.
    4. Barbara Pistoresi & Alberto Rinaldi & Francesco Salsano, 2015. "Government expenditure and economic development: evidence from Italy 1862-2009," Department of Economics 0065, University of Modena and Reggio E., Faculty of Economics "Marco Biagi".
    5. Ibok, Otu William & Bassey, Nsikan Edet, 3. "Wagner’S Law Revä°Sä°Ted: The Case Of Nigerian Agricultural Sector (1961 €“ 2012)," International Journal of Food and Agricultural Economics (IJFAEC), Alanya Alaaddin Keykubat University, Department of Economics and Finance, vol. 2(3).
    6. Maddalena Cavicchioli & Barbara Pistoresi, 2016. "Testing threshold cointegration in Wagner's Law: the role of military spending," Department of Economics 0078, University of Modena and Reggio E., Faculty of Economics "Marco Biagi".
    7. Buiatti, Cesare & Carmeci, Gaetano & Mauro, Luciano, 2014. "The origins of the public debt of Italy: Geographically dispersed interests?," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 36(1), pages 43-62.
    8. Ali, Wajid & Munir, Kashif, 2016. "Testing Wagner versus Keynesian Hypothesis for Pakistan: The Role of Aggregate and Disaggregate Expenditure," MPRA Paper 74570, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    9. Mitze, Timo & Matz, Florian, 2015. "Public debt and growth in German federal states: What can Europe learn?," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 37(2), pages 208-228.
    10. Francesco Forte & Cosimo Magazzino, 2014. "Optimal size of governments and the optimal ratio between current and capital expenditure," Chapters,in: A Handbook of Alternative Theories of Public Economics, chapter 15, pages 342-367 Edward Elgar Publishing.
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    13. Lingxiao WANG & Adelina DUMITRESCU PECULEA & Handuo XU, 2016. "The relationship between public expenditure and economic growth in Romania: Does it obey Wagner’s or Keynes’s Law?," Theoretical and Applied Economics, Asociatia Generala a Economistilor din Romania - AGER, vol. 0(3(608), A), pages 41-52, Autumn.
    14. Cosimo Magazzino, 2012. "The Nexus between Disaggregated Public Spending and GDP in the Euro Area," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 32(3), pages 2560-2579.
    15. Lingxiao WANG & Adelina DUMITRESCU PECULEA & Handuo XU, 2016. "The relationship between public expenditure and economic growth in Romania: Does it obey Wagner’s or Keynes’s Law?," Theoretical and Applied Economics, Asociatia Generala a Economistilor din Romania - AGER, vol. 0(3(608), A), pages 41-52, Autumn.
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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Public spending; Economic growth; Wagner's Law; Time series; Unit root; Cointegration; Causality; Fiscal policy;

    JEL classification:

    • C32 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables - - - Time-Series Models; Dynamic Quantile Regressions; Dynamic Treatment Effect Models; Diffusion Processes; State Space Models
    • E60 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Macroeconomic Policy, Macroeconomic Aspects of Public Finance, and General Outlook - - - General
    • H50 - Public Economics - - National Government Expenditures and Related Policies - - - General
    • H60 - Public Economics - - National Budget, Deficit, and Debt - - - General
    • N44 - Economic History - - Government, War, Law, International Relations, and Regulation - - - Europe: 1913-

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