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Wagner's Law revisited: cointegration and causality tests for New Zealand

Author

Listed:
  • Saten Kumar
  • Don J. Webber
  • Scott Fargher

Abstract

Wagner's Law states that the share of government expenditure in Gross National Product (GNP) will increase with economic development; many associated empirical studies substitute GNP with Gross Domestic Product (GDP). This article presents an empirical investigation into the validity of Wagner's Law for New Zealand over the period 1960 to 2007 and compares the results obtained using these two measures of output. Application of the Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) bounds test suggests a cointegrating relationship between either output measure and the share of government spending, and further application of General to Specific (GETS), Engle and Granger (EG), Phillip Hansen's Fully Modified Ordinary Least Squares (FMOLS) and Johansen's time series techniques illustrate statistical robustness and an income elasticity between 0.56 and 0.84. The results suggest that output measures Granger cause the share of government expenditure in the long run, thereby providing support for Wagner's Law, and these results are stable irrespective of the chosen output measure.

Suggested Citation

  • Saten Kumar & Don J. Webber & Scott Fargher, 2012. "Wagner's Law revisited: cointegration and causality tests for New Zealand," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 44(5), pages 607-616, February.
  • Handle: RePEc:taf:applec:44:y:2012:i:5:p:607-616
    DOI: 10.1080/00036846.2010.511994
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Dimitrios Sideris, 2007. "Wagner's Law in 19th Century Greece: A Cointegration and Causality Analysis," Working Papers 64, Bank of Greece.
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    Cited by:

    1. Saten Kumar & Don J. Webber, 2013. "Australasian money demand stability: application of structural break tests," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 45(8), pages 1011-1025, March.
    2. Hassan Mohammadi & Rati Ram, 2015. "Economic Development and Government Spending: An Exploration of Wagner’s Hypothesis during Fifty Years of Growth in East Asia," Economies, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 3(4), pages 1-11, October.
    3. António Afonso & José Alves, 2017. "Reconsidering Wagner’s law: evidence from the functions of the government," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 24(5), pages 346-350, March.
    4. Emilio Congregado & Antonio Golpe & André Stel, 2014. "The role of scale economies in determining firm size in modern economies," The Annals of Regional Science, Springer;Western Regional Science Association, vol. 52(2), pages 431-455, March.
    5. repec:eso:journl:v:47:y:2016:i:1:p:69-103 is not listed on IDEAS
    6. Nicholas Odhiambo, 2015. "Government Expenditure and Economic Growth in South Africa: an Empirical Investigation," Atlantic Economic Journal, Springer;International Atlantic Economic Society, vol. 43(3), pages 393-406, September.
    7. Ibok, Otu William & Bassey, Nsikan Edet, 3. "Wagner’S Law Revä°Sä°Ted: The Case Of Nigerian Agricultural Sector (1961 €“ 2012)," International Journal of Food and Agricultural Economics (IJFAEC), Alanya Alaaddin Keykubat University, Department of Economics and Finance, vol. 2(3).
    8. Magazzino, Cosimo, 2010. "Wagner's law and Italian disaggregated public spending: some empirical evidences," MPRA Paper 26662, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    9. Ali, Wajid & Munir, Kashif, 2016. "Testing Wagner versus Keynesian Hypothesis for Pakistan: The Role of Aggregate and Disaggregate Expenditure," MPRA Paper 74570, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    10. Florian Verheyen, 2014. "The stability of German export demand equations – have German exports suffered from the strength of the euro?," International Economics and Economic Policy, Springer, vol. 11(4), pages 529-548, December.
    11. Facchini, François & Melki, Mickaël, 2013. "Efficient government size: France in the 20th century," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 31(C), pages 1-14.
    12. Kumar, Saten & Shahbaz, Muhammad, 2010. "Coal Consumption and Economic Growth Revisited: Structural Breaks, Cointegration and Causality Tests for Pakistan," MPRA Paper 26151, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    13. Saten Kumar, 2011. "Estimating export demand equations in selected Asian countries," Journal of Chinese Economic and Foreign Trade Studies, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 4(1), pages 5-16, February.
    14. Lingxiao WANG & Adelina DUMITRESCU PECULEA & Handuo XU, 2016. "The relationship between public expenditure and economic growth in Romania: Does it obey Wagner’s or Keynes’s Law?," Theoretical and Applied Economics, Asociatia Generala a Economistilor din Romania - AGER, vol. 0(3(608), A), pages 41-52, Autumn.
    15. Cosimo Magazzino, 2012. "The Nexus between Disaggregated Public Spending and GDP in the Euro Area," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 32(3), pages 2560-2579.
    16. Asuman Oktayer & Nagihan Oktayer, 2013. "Testing Wagner´s Law for Turkey: Evidence from a Trivariate Causality Analysis," Prague Economic Papers, University of Economics, Prague, vol. 2013(2), pages 284-301.
    17. Lingxiao WANG & Adelina DUMITRESCU PECULEA & Handuo XU, 2016. "The relationship between public expenditure and economic growth in Romania: Does it obey Wagner’s or Keynes’s Law?," Theoretical and Applied Economics, Asociatia Generala a Economistilor din Romania - AGER, vol. 0(3(608), A), pages 41-52, Autumn.
    18. Magazzino, Cosimo, 2010. "Wagner's law and augmented Wagner's law in EU-27. A time-series analysis on stationarity, cointegration and causality," MPRA Paper 26668, University Library of Munich, Germany.

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