IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/eee/intfin/v55y2018icp224-240.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Identifying contagion: A unifying approach

Author

Listed:
  • Sewraj, Deeya
  • Gebka, Bartosz
  • Anderson, Robert D.J.

Abstract

We propose a new approach to identify financial contagion. Our method accounts for possible trends in market linkages, and allows a description of the contagion process over the crisis period. Results for a sample of 25 stock markets show that the impact of the 2007–9 crisis on domestic markets from financial shocks originating in the US was largely heterogeneous. Markets are found to experience the crisis differently, regardless of whether these effects are found to be contagious. Contagion was also less common than could be expected based on a more commonly employed model, which assumes constant market interdependencies within subperiods.

Suggested Citation

  • Sewraj, Deeya & Gebka, Bartosz & Anderson, Robert D.J., 2018. "Identifying contagion: A unifying approach," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 55(C), pages 224-240.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:intfin:v:55:y:2018:i:c:p:224-240
    DOI: 10.1016/j.intfin.2018.02.012
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1042443117304249
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    File URL: https://libkey.io/10.1016/j.intfin.2018.02.012?utm_source=ideas
    LibKey link: if access is restricted and if your library uses this service, LibKey will redirect you to where you can use your library subscription to access this item
    ---><---

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Brière, Marie & Chapelle, Ariane & Szafarz, Ariane, 2012. "No contagion, only globalization and flight to quality," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 31(6), pages 1729-1744.
    2. Eichengreen, Barry & Rose, Andrew K & Wyplosz, Charles, 1996. "Contagious Currency Crises," CEPR Discussion Papers 1453, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    3. P. Hartmann & S. Straetmans & C. G. de Vries, 2004. "Asset Market Linkages in Crisis Periods," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 86(1), pages 313-326, February.
    4. Eichengreen, Barry & Rose, Andrew & Wyplosz, Charles, 1996. " Contagious Currency Crises: First Tests," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 98(4), pages 463-484, December.
    5. Allegret, Jean-Pierre & Raymond, Hélène & Rharrabti, Houda, 2017. "The impact of the European sovereign debt crisis on banks stocks. Some evidence of shift contagion in Europe," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 74(C), pages 24-37.
    6. King, Mervyn A & Wadhwani, Sushil, 1990. "Transmission of Volatility between Stock Markets," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 3(1), pages 5-33.
    7. Samarakoon, Lalith P., 2017. "Contagion of the eurozone debt crisis," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 49(C), pages 115-128.
    8. Francis X. Diebold & Kamil Yilmaz, 2009. "Measuring Financial Asset Return and Volatility Spillovers, with Application to Global Equity Markets," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 119(534), pages 158-171, January.
    9. Pukthuanthong, Kuntara & Roll, Richard, 2009. "Global market integration: An alternative measure and its application," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 94(2), pages 214-232, November.
    10. Geert Bekaert & Michael Ehrmann & Marcel Fratzscher & Arnaud Mehl, 2014. "The Global Crisis and Equity Market Contagion," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 69(6), pages 2597-2649, December.
    11. Bertrand Candelon & Sessi Tokpavi, 2016. "A Nonparametric Test for Granger Causality in Distribution With Application to Financial Contagion," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 34(2), pages 240-253, April.
    12. Brian H. Boyer & Tomomi Kumagai & Kathy Yuan, 2006. "How Do Crises Spread? Evidence from Accessible and Inaccessible Stock Indices," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 61(2), pages 957-1003, April.
    13. Renée Fry-McKibbin & Cody Hsiao & Chrismin Tang, 2014. "Contagion and Global Financial Crises: Lessons from Nine Crisis Episodes," Open Economies Review, Springer, vol. 25(3), pages 521-570, July.
    14. John Beirne & Jana Gieck, 2014. "Interdependence and Contagion in Global Asset Markets," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 22(4), pages 639-659, September.
    15. Baele, Lieven & Inghelbrecht, Koen, 2010. "Time-varying integration, interdependence and contagion," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 29(5), pages 791-818, September.
    16. Chiang, Thomas C. & Jeon, Bang Nam & Li, Huimin, 2007. "Dynamic correlation analysis of financial contagion: Evidence from Asian markets," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 26(7), pages 1206-1228, November.
    17. Morris Goldstein, 1998. "The Asian Financial Crisis," Policy Briefs PB98-1, Peterson Institute for International Economics.
    18. Morris Goldstein, 1998. "Asian Financial Crisis: Causes, Cures and Systemic Implications, The," Peterson Institute Press: All Books, Peterson Institute for International Economics, number pa55, July.
    19. Marcello Pericoli & Massimo Sbracia, 2003. "A Primer on Financial Contagion," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 17(4), pages 571-608, September.
    20. Kee-Hong Bae & G. Andrew Karolyi & René M. Stulz, 2003. "A New Approach to Measuring Financial Contagion," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 16(3), pages 717-763, July.
    21. Hui Tong & Shang-Jin Wei, 2011. "The Composition Matters: Capital Inflows and Liquidity Crunch During a Global Economic Crisis," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 24(6), pages 2023-2052.
    22. Climent, Francisco & Meneu, Vicente, 2003. "Has 1997 Asian crisis increased information flows between international markets," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 12(1), pages 111-143.
    23. Gonzalo, Jesus & Pitarakis, Jean-Yves, 1998. "Specification via model selection in vector error correction models," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 60(3), pages 321-328, September.
    24. Rigobon, Roberto, 2003. "On the measurement of the international propagation of shocks: is the transmission stable?," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 61(2), pages 261-283, December.
    25. Chiu, Wan-Chien & Peña, Juan Ignacio & Wang, Chih-Wei, 2015. "Industry characteristics and financial risk contagion," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 50(C), pages 411-427.
    26. Bialkowski, Jedrzej & Bohl, Martin T. & Serwa, Dobromil, 2006. "Testing for financial spillovers in calm and turbulent periods," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 46(3), pages 397-412, July.
    27. Philippas, Dionisis & Siriopoulos, Costas, 2013. "Putting the “C” into crisis: Contagion, correlations and copulas on EMU bond markets," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 27(C), pages 161-176.
    28. Baele, Lieven, 2005. "Volatility Spillover Effects in European Equity Markets," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 40(2), pages 373-401, June.
    29. Engle, Robert F & Susmel, Raul, 1993. "Common Volatility in International Equity Markets," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 11(2), pages 167-176, April.
    30. Dungey, Mardi & Milunovich, George & Thorp, Susan & Yang, Minxian, 2015. "Endogenous crisis dating and contagion using smooth transition structural GARCH," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 58(C), pages 71-79.
    31. repec:dau:papers:123456789/7746 is not listed on IDEAS
    32. Mardi Dungey & Renee Fry & Brenda Gonzalez-Hermosillo & Vance Martin, 2005. "Empirical modelling of contagion: a review of methodologies," Quantitative Finance, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 5(1), pages 9-24.
    33. Glosten, Lawrence R & Jagannathan, Ravi & Runkle, David E, 1993. "On the Relation between the Expected Value and the Volatility of the Nominal Excess Return on Stocks," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 48(5), pages 1779-1801, December.
    34. Geert Bekaert & Campbell R. Harvey & Angela Ng, 2005. "Market Integration and Contagion," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 78(1), pages 39-70, January.
    35. Geert Bekaert & Campbell R. Harvey & Christian T. Lundblad & Stephan Siegel, 2011. "What Segments Equity Markets?," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 24(12), pages 3841-3890.
    36. Hamao, Yasushi & Masulis, Ronald W & Ng, Victor, 1990. "Correlations in Price Changes and Volatility across International Stock Markets," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 3(2), pages 281-307.
    37. Mink, Mark, 2015. "Measuring stock market contagion: Local or common currency returns?," Emerging Markets Review, Elsevier, vol. 22(C), pages 18-24.
    38. Støve, Bård & Tjøstheim, Dag & Hufthammer, Karl Ove, 2014. "Using local Gaussian correlation in a nonlinear re-examination of financial contagion," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 25(C), pages 62-82.
    39. Ng, Angela, 2000. "Volatility spillover effects from Japan and the US to the Pacific-Basin," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 19(2), pages 207-233, April.
    40. Dungey, Mardi & Gajurel, Dinesh, 2014. "Equity market contagion during the global financial crisis: Evidence from the world's eight largest economies," Economic Systems, Elsevier, vol. 38(2), pages 161-177.
    41. Engle, Robert & Granger, Clive, 2015. "Co-integration and error correction: Representation, estimation, and testing," Applied Econometrics, Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA), vol. 39(3), pages 106-135.
    42. Gebka, Bartosz & Serwa, Dobromil, 2007. "Intra- and inter-regional spillovers between emerging capital markets around the world," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 21(2), pages 203-221, June.
    43. Mollah, Sabur & Quoreshi, A.M.M. Shahiduzzaman & Zafirov, Goran, 2016. "Equity market contagion during global financial and Eurozone crises: Evidence from a dynamic correlation analysis," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 41(C), pages 151-167.
    44. François Longin & Bruno Solnik, 2001. "Extreme Correlation of International Equity Markets," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 56(2), pages 649-676, April.
    45. Blatt, Dominik & Candelon, Bertrand & Manner, Hans, 2015. "Detecting contagion in a multivariate time series system: An application to sovereign bond markets in Europe," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 59(C), pages 1-13.
    46. Gary Gorton & Andrew Metrick, 2012. "Getting Up to Speed on the Financial Crisis: A One-Weekend-Reader's Guide," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 50(1), pages 128-150, March.
    47. Baur, Dirk G., 2012. "Financial contagion and the real economy," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 36(10), pages 2680-2692.
    48. G. Andrew Karolyi, 2004. "Does International Financial Contagion Really Exist?," Journal of Applied Corporate Finance, Morgan Stanley, vol. 16(2‐3), pages 136-146, March.
    49. Ehrmann, Michael & Fratzscher, Marcel, 2017. "Euro area government bonds – Fragmentation and contagion during the sovereign debt crisis," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 70(C), pages 26-44.
    50. Andrew Filardo & Jason George & Mico Loretan & Guonan Ma & Anella Munro & Ilhyock Shim & Philip Wooldridge & James Yetman & Haibin Zhu, 2010. "The international financial crisis: timeline, impact and policy responses in Asia and the Pacific," BIS Papers chapters, in: Bank for International Settlements (ed.), The international financial crisis and policy challenges in Asia and the Pacific, volume 52, pages 21-82, Bank for International Settlements.
    51. Bertrand Candelon & Sessi Tokpavi, 2016. "A Nonparametric Test for Granger Causality in Distribution With Application to Financial Contagion," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 34(2), pages 240-253, April.
    52. Kristin J. Forbes & Roberto Rigobon, 2002. "No Contagion, Only Interdependence: Measuring Stock Market Comovements," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 57(5), pages 2223-2261, October.
    53. Chiang, Min-Hsien & Wang, Li-Min, 2011. "Volatility contagion: A range-based volatility approach," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 165(2), pages 175-189.
    54. Johansen, Soren, 1991. "Estimation and Hypothesis Testing of Cointegration Vectors in Gaussian Vector Autoregressive Models," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 59(6), pages 1551-1580, November.
    55. Aznar, Antonio & Salvador, Manuel, 2002. "Selecting The Rank Of The Cointegration Space And The Form Of The Intercept Using An Information Criterion," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 18(4), pages 926-947, August.
    56. Kenourgios, Dimitris & Dimitriou, Dimitrios, 2015. "Contagion of the Global Financial Crisis and the real economy: A regional analysis," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 44(C), pages 283-293.
    57. Allegret, Jean-Pierre & Raymond, Hélène & Rharrabti, Houda, 2017. "The impact of the European sovereign debt crisis on banks stocks. Some evidence of shift contagion in Europe," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 74(C), pages 24-37.
    58. MacKinnon, James G, 1996. "Numerical Distribution Functions for Unit Root and Cointegration Tests," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 11(6), pages 601-618, Nov.-Dec..
    59. G. Andrew Karolyi, 2003. "Does International Financial Contagion Really Exist?," International Finance, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 6(2), pages 179-199, July.
    60. Carrieri, Francesca & Errunza, Vihang & Hogan, Ked, 2007. "Characterizing World Market Integration through Time," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 42(4), pages 915-940, December.
    61. Vermeulen, Robert, 2013. "International diversification during the financial crisis: A blessing for equity investors?," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 35(C), pages 104-123.
    62. Dungey, Mardi & Gajurel, Dinesh, 2015. "Contagion and banking crisis – International evidence for 2007–2009," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 60(C), pages 271-283.
    63. Gebka, Bartosz & Serwa, Dobromil, 2006. "Are financial spillovers stable across regimes?: Evidence from the 1997 Asian crisis," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 16(4), pages 301-317, October.
    64. Gagnon, Louis & Karolyi, G. Andrew, 2006. "Price and Volatility Transmission across Borders," Working Paper Series 2006-5, Ohio State University, Charles A. Dice Center for Research in Financial Economics.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Chen, Jing & Han, Qian & Ryu, Doojin & Tang, Jing, 2022. "Does the world smile together? A network analysis of global index option implied volatilities," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 77(C).
    2. Dungey, Mardi & Kangogo, Moses & Volkov, Vladimir, 2019. "Changing Vulnerability in Asia: Contagion and Systemic Risk," ADB Economics Working Paper Series 583, Asian Development Bank.
    3. Dungey, Mardi & Flavin, Thomas J. & Lagoa-Varela, Dolores, 2020. "Are banking shocks contagious? Evidence from the eurozone," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 112(C).
    4. Wu, Fei & Zhang, Dayong & Zhang, Zhiwei, 2019. "Connectedness and risk spillovers in China’s stock market: A sectoral analysis," Economic Systems, Elsevier, vol. 43(3).
    5. Ahmed BenSaïda & Houda Litimi, 2021. "Financial contagion across G10 stock markets: A study during major crises," International Journal of Finance & Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 26(3), pages 4798-4821, July.
    6. Patel, Ritesh & Goodell, John W. & Oriani, Marco Ercole & Paltrinieri, Andrea & Yarovaya, Larisa, 2022. "A bibliometric review of financial market integration literature," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 80(C).
    7. Mensi, Walid & Nekhili, Ramzi & Vo, Xuan Vinh & Suleman, Tahir & Kang, Sang Hoon, 2021. "Asymmetric volatility connectedness among U.S. stock sectors," The North American Journal of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 56(C).
    8. Hui, Eddie C.M. & Chan, Ka Kwan Kevin, 2019. "Alternative trading strategies to beat “buy-and-hold”," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 534(C).
    9. Ahmad, Wasim & Mishra, Anil V. & Daly, Kevin, 2018. "Heterogeneous dependence and dynamic hedging between sectors of BRIC and global markets," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 59(C), pages 117-133.
    10. Campos-Martins, Susana & Amado, Cristina, 2022. "Financial market linkages and the sovereign debt crisis," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 123(C).
    11. Maghyereh, Aktham & Awartani, Basel & Abdoh, Hussein, 2022. "Asymmetric risk transfer in global equity markets: An extended sample that includes the COVID pandemic period," The Journal of Economic Asymmetries, Elsevier, vol. 25(C).

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Sewraj, Deeya & Gebka, Bartosz & Anderson, Robert D.J., 2019. "Day-of-the-week effects in financial contagion," Finance Research Letters, Elsevier, vol. 28(C), pages 221-226.
    2. Geert Bekaert & Michael Ehrmann & Marcel Fratzscher & Arnaud Mehl, 2014. "The Global Crisis and Equity Market Contagion," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 69(6), pages 2597-2649, December.
    3. Alexakis, Christos & Pappas, Vasileios, 2018. "Sectoral dynamics of financial contagion in Europe - The cases of the recent crises episodes," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 73(C), pages 222-239.
    4. Edgardo Cayón, 2014. "The Effects of Contagion During the Global Financial Crisis in Government-Regulated and Sponsored Assets in Emerging Markets," PhD Thesis, Finance Discipline Group, UTS Business School, University of Technology, Sydney, number 3-2014.
    5. Cho, Sungjun & Hyde, Stuart & Nguyen, Ngoc, 2015. "Time-varying regional and global integration and contagion: Evidence from style portfolios," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 42(C), pages 109-131.
    6. Rajan Sruthi & Santhakumar Shijin, 2020. "Investigating liquidity constraints as a channel of contagion: a regime switching approach," Financial Innovation, Springer;Southwestern University of Finance and Economics, vol. 6(1), pages 1-21, December.
    7. Štefan Lyócsa & Roman Horváth, 2018. "Stock Market Contagion: a New Approach," Open Economies Review, Springer, vol. 29(3), pages 547-577, July.
    8. Lei Wu & Qingbin Meng & Kuan Xu, 2015. "'Slow-burn' spillover and 'fast and furious' contagion: a study of international stock markets," Quantitative Finance, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 15(6), pages 933-958, June.
    9. Edgardo Cayón, 2014. "The Effects of Contagion During the Global Financial Crisis in Government-Regulated and Sponsored Assets in Emerging Markets," PhD Thesis, Finance Discipline Group, UTS Business School, University of Technology, Sydney, number 30, July-Dece.
    10. Mardi Dungey & Rene Fry & Vance L. Martin, 2006. "Correlation, Contagion, and Asian Evidence," Asian Economic Papers, MIT Press, vol. 5(2), pages 32-72, Spring/Su.
    11. Dungey, Mardi & Gajurel, Dinesh, 2014. "Equity market contagion during the global financial crisis: Evidence from the world's eight largest economies," Economic Systems, Elsevier, vol. 38(2), pages 161-177.
    12. Gonzalez-Hermosillo Gonzalez, B.M., 2008. "Transmission of shocks across global financial markets : The role of contagion and investors' risk appetite," Other publications TiSEM d684f3c7-7ad8-4e93-88cf-a, Tilburg University, School of Economics and Management.
    13. Gagnon, Louis & Karolyi, G. Andrew, 2006. "Price and Volatility Transmission across Borders," Working Paper Series 2006-5, Ohio State University, Charles A. Dice Center for Research in Financial Economics.
    14. John Beirne & Guglielmo Maria Caporale & Marianne Schulze-Ghattas & Nicola Spagnolo, 2013. "Volatility Spillovers and Contagion from Mature to Emerging Stock Markets," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 21(5), pages 1060-1075, November.
    15. Ballester, Laura & Díaz-Mendoza, Ana Carmen & González-Urteaga, Ana, 2019. "A systematic review of sovereign connectedness on emerging economies," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 62(C), pages 157-163.
    16. Akhtaruzzaman, Md & Shamsuddin, Abul, 2016. "International contagion through financial versus non-financial firms," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 59(C), pages 143-163.
    17. Pappas, Vasileios & Ingham, Hilary & Izzeldin, Marwan & Steele, Gerry, 2016. "Will the crisis “tear us apart”? Evidence from the EU," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 46(C), pages 346-360.
    18. Dungey, Mardi & Gajurel, Dinesh, 2015. "Contagion and banking crisis – International evidence for 2007–2009," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 60(C), pages 271-283.
    19. Woon Sau Leung & Nicholas Taylor, 2013. "Testing for contagion: the impact of US structured markets on international financial markets," Chapters, in: Adrian R. Bell & Chris Brooks & Marcel Prokopczuk (ed.), Handbook of Research Methods and Applications in Empirical Finance, chapter 11, pages 256-284, Edward Elgar Publishing.
    20. Cai, Charlie X. & Mobarek, Asma & Zhang, Qi, 2017. "International stock market leadership and its determinants," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 33(C), pages 150-162.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Finance; Risk analysis; Stock markets; Financial contagion; Financial crises;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • G0 - Financial Economics - - General
    • G15 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - International Financial Markets

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:intfin:v:55:y:2018:i:c:p:224-240. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/intfin .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Catherine Liu (email available below). General contact details of provider: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/intfin .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.