IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/eee/ecanpo/v63y2019icp150-164.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Gender difference in access to local finance and firm performance: Evidence from a panel survey in Vietnam

Author

Listed:
  • Tran, Viet T.
  • Nguyen, Trung Thanh
  • Tran, Nguyet T.M.

Abstract

Whether local financial development could reduce the constraints for women to promote economic growth is an important question that has been paid little attention. In this paper, we use data of more than 40,000 firms collected in Vietnam from 2009 to 2013 to examine the effects of local financial development, male ownership and the joint effect of these factors on firm growth. To address endogeneity issues which might arise by the causality from firm growth to local financial development, we employ the heteroscedasticity-based identification strategy. The results show that local financial development promotes firm performance in terms of the growth rates of sales, investment, sales per worker, return on investment (ROI), return on assets (ROA), and return on equity (ROE). The results also suggest the difference in entrepreneurs’ gender affects firm growth. Moreover, the joint effect of local financial development and male ownership is significantly negative through all specifications. This implies that local financial development could help reduce the gender gap in promoting firm growth.

Suggested Citation

  • Tran, Viet T. & Nguyen, Trung Thanh & Tran, Nguyet T.M., 2019. "Gender difference in access to local finance and firm performance: Evidence from a panel survey in Vietnam," Economic Analysis and Policy, Elsevier, vol. 63(C), pages 150-164.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:ecanpo:v:63:y:2019:i:c:p:150-164
    DOI: 10.1016/j.eap.2019.05.004
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0313592618304296
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    File URL: https://libkey.io/10.1016/j.eap.2019.05.004?utm_source=ideas
    LibKey link: if access is restricted and if your library uses this service, LibKey will redirect you to where you can use your library subscription to access this item
    ---><---

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Madestam, Andreas, 2014. "Informal finance: A theory of moneylenders," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 107(C), pages 157-174.
    2. Bao Duong, Pham & Izumida, Yoichi, 2002. "Rural Development Finance in Vietnam: A Microeconometric Analysis of Household Surveys," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 30(2), pages 319-335, February.
    3. Kleibergen, Frank & Paap, Richard, 2006. "Generalized reduced rank tests using the singular value decomposition," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 133(1), pages 97-126, July.
    4. Evans, David S, 1987. "The Relationship between Firm Growth, Size, and Age: Estimates for 100 Manufacturing Industries," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 35(4), pages 567-581, June.
    5. Martin Brown & Steven Ongena & Alexander Popov & Pinar Yeşin, 2011. "Who needs credit and who gets credit in Eastern Europe? [Interaction terms in logit and probit models]," Economic Policy, CEPR;CES;MSH, vol. 26(65), pages 93-130.
    6. Thorsten Beck & Patrick Behr & Andreas Madestam, 2011. "Sex and Credit: Is There a Gender Bias in Lending?," Working Papers 411, IGIER (Innocenzo Gasparini Institute for Economic Research), Bocconi University.
    7. Leora Klapper & Inessa Love, 2010. "New Firm Creation," World Bank Publications - Reports 11078, The World Bank Group.
    8. Rajan, Raghuram G & Zingales, Luigi, 1998. "Financial Dependence and Growth," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 88(3), pages 559-586, June.
    9. Aterido, Reyes & Beck, Thorsten & Iacovone, Leonardo, 2013. "Access to Finance in Sub-Saharan Africa: Is There a Gender Gap?," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 47(C), pages 102-120.
    10. Oriana Bandiera & Ashwini Natraj, 2013. "Does Gender Inequality Hinder Development and Economic Growth? Evidence and Policy Implications," The World Bank Research Observer, World Bank Group, vol. 28(1), pages 2-21, February.
    11. Le, Viet & Vu, Xuan-Binh (Benjamin) & Nghiem, Son, 2018. "Technical efficiency of small and medium manufacturing firms in Vietnam: A stochastic meta-frontier analysis," Economic Analysis and Policy, Elsevier, vol. 59(C), pages 84-91.
    12. Jean Arcand & Enrico Berkes & Ugo Panizza, 2015. "Too much finance?," Journal of Economic Growth, Springer, vol. 20(2), pages 105-148, June.
    13. Alberto F. Alesina & Francesca Lotti & Paolo Emilio Mistrulli, 2013. "Do Women Pay More For Credit? Evidence From Italy," Journal of the European Economic Association, European Economic Association, vol. 11, pages 45-66, January.
    14. Nguyen, Thuy Thu & van Dijk, Mathijs A., 2012. "Corruption, growth, and governance: Private vs. state-owned firms in Vietnam," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 36(11), pages 2935-2948.
    15. Herwartz, Helmut & Walle, Yabibal M., 2014. "Determinants of the link between financial and economic development: Evidence from a functional coefficient model," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 37(C), pages 417-427.
    16. Luigi Guiso & Paola Sapienza & Luigi Zingales, 2009. "Does Local Financial Development Matter?," Springer Books, in: Damiano Bruno Silipo (ed.), The Banks and the Italian Economy, chapter 0, pages 31-66, Springer.
    17. Ahlin, Christian & Pang, Jiaren, 2008. "Are financial development and corruption control substitutes in promoting growth?," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 86(2), pages 414-433, June.
    18. Robert G. King & Ross Levine, 1993. "Finance and Growth: Schumpeter Might Be Right," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 108(3), pages 717-737.
    19. Demirguc-Kunt, Ash & Maksimovic, Vojislav, 1996. "Stock Market Development and Financing Choices of Firms," The World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 10(2), pages 341-369, May.
    20. Buvinic, Mayra & Berger, Marguerite, 1990. "Sex differences in access to a small enterprise development fund in Peru," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 18(5), pages 695-705, May.
    21. Almus, Matthias & Nerlinger, Eric A, 1999. "Growth of New Technology-Based Firms: Which Factors Matter?," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 13(2), pages 141-154, September.
    22. Kendall, Jake, 2012. "Local financial development and growth," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 36(5), pages 1548-1562.
    23. Pham, Tho & Talavera, Oleksandr, 2018. "Discrimination, Social Capital, and Financial Constraints: The Case of Viet Nam," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 102(C), pages 228-242.
    24. Beck, T.H.L. & Behr, P. & Madestam, A., 2011. "Sex and Credit : Is There a Gender Bias in Microfinance?," Other publications TiSEM ea5418eb-7e1e-475c-a70a-8, Tilburg University, School of Economics and Management.
    25. Muravyev, Alexander & Talavera, Oleksandr & Schäfer, Dorothea, 2009. "Entrepreneurs' gender and financial constraints: Evidence from international data," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 37(2), pages 270-286, June.
    26. D. Storey, 2004. "Racial and Gender Discrimination in the Micro Firms Credit Market?: Evidence from Trinidad and Tobago," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 23(5), pages 401-422, December.
    27. Andrea F. Presbitero & Roberta Rabellotti & Claudia Piras, 2014. "Barking up the Wrong Tree? Measuring Gender Gaps in Firm's Access to Finance," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 50(10), pages 1430-1444, November.
    28. World Bank, 2014. "Financial Sector Assessment : Vietnam," World Bank Publications - Reports 20583, The World Bank Group.
    29. Adeniyi, Oluwatosin & Oyinlola, Abimbola & Omisakin, Olusegun & Egwaikhide, Festus O., 2015. "Financial development and economic growth in Nigeria: Evidence from threshold modelling," Economic Analysis and Policy, Elsevier, vol. 47(C), pages 11-21.
    30. repec:oup:rfinst:v:21:y:2017:i:4:p:1639-1674. is not listed on IDEAS
    31. Mark Rogers, 2004. "Networks, Firm Size and Innovation," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 22(2), pages 141-153, March.
    32. Conor O’Toole & Carol Newman, 2017. "Investment Financing and Financial Development: Evidence from Viet Nam," Review of Finance, European Finance Association, vol. 21(4), pages 1639-1674.
    33. Ang, James B. & McKibbin, Warwick J., 2007. "Financial liberalization, financial sector development and growth: Evidence from Malaysia," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 84(1), pages 215-233, September.
    34. Trung Thanh Nguyen & Viet Tuan Tran & Thanh-Tung Nguyen & Ulrike Grote, 0. "Farming efficiency, cropland rental market and income effect: evidence from panel data for rural Central Vietnam," European Review of Agricultural Economics, Foundation for the European Review of Agricultural Economics, vol. 48(1), pages 207-248.
    35. repec:taf:jnlbes:v:30:y:2012:i:1:p:67-80 is not listed on IDEAS
    36. Jith Jayaratne & Philip E. Strahan, 1996. "The Finance-Growth Nexus: Evidence from Bank Branch Deregulation," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 111(3), pages 639-670.
    37. Aterido, Reyes & Beck, Thorsten & Iacovone, Leonardo, 2011. "Gender and finance in Sub-Saharan Africa : are women disadvantaged ?," Policy Research Working Paper Series 5571, The World Bank.
    38. David G. Blanchflower & Phillip B. Levine & David J. Zimmerman, 2003. "Discrimination in the Small-Business Credit Market," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 85(4), pages 930-943, November.
    39. Blundell, Richard & Bond, Stephen, 1998. "Initial conditions and moment restrictions in dynamic panel data models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 87(1), pages 115-143, August.
    40. Ken S. Cavalluzzo, 2002. "Competition, Small Business Financing, and Discrimination: Evidence from a New Survey," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 75(4), pages 641-680, October.
    41. Chih-Hai Yang & Chia-Hui Huang, 2005. "R&D, Size and Firm Growth in Taiwan‘s Electronics Industry," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 25(5), pages 477-487, December.
    42. Mikkel Barslund & Finn Tarp, 2008. "Formal and Informal Rural Credit in Four Provinces of Vietnam," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 44(4), pages 485-503, April.
    43. Raymond Fisman & Inessa Love, 2007. "Financial Dependence and Growth Revisited," Journal of the European Economic Association, MIT Press, vol. 5(2-3), pages 470-479, 04-05.
    44. Nichter, Simeon & Goldmark, Lara, 2009. "Small Firm Growth in Developing Countries," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 37(9), pages 1453-1464, September.
    45. Thorsten Beck & Asli Demirgüç‐Kunt & Vojislav Maksimovic, 2005. "Financial and Legal Constraints to Growth: Does Firm Size Matter?," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 60(1), pages 137-177, February.
    46. Fafchamps, Marcel & Schündeln, Matthias, 2013. "Local financial development and firm performance: Evidence from Morocco," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 103(C), pages 15-28.
    47. Hansen, Henrik & Rand, John, 2014. "Estimates of gender differences in firm’s access to credit in Sub-Saharan Africa," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 123(3), pages 374-377.
    48. Bruhn, Miriam, 2009. "Female-owned firms in Latin America : characteristics, performance, and obstacles to growth," Policy Research Working Paper Series 5122, The World Bank.
    49. Christopher F Baum & Arthur Lewbel & Mark E Schaffer & Oleksander Talavera, 2012. "Instrumental variables estimation using heteroskedasticity-based instruments," United Kingdom Stata Users' Group Meetings 2012 07, Stata Users Group.
    50. Beck, Thorsten & Demirguc-Kunt, Asli & Levine, Ross & Maksimovic, Vojislav, 2000. "Financial structure and economic development - firm, industry, and country evidence," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2423, The World Bank.
    51. C. Christopher Baughn & Bee–Leng Chua & Kent E. Neupert, 2006. "The Normative Context for Women's Participation in Entrepreneruship: A Multicountry Study," Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, , vol. 30(5), pages 687-708, September.
    52. Sajid Anwar & Lan Nguyen, 2011. "Financial development and economic growth in Vietnam," Journal of Economics and Finance, Springer;Academy of Economics and Finance, vol. 35(3), pages 348-360, July.
    53. Viet T. Tran & Yabibal M. Walle & Helmut Herwartz, 2018. "Local Financial Development and Household Welfare in Vietnam: Evidence from a Panel Survey," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 54(4), pages 619-640, April.
    54. Verheul, Ingrid & Thurik, Roy, 2001. "Start-Up Capital: "Does Gender Matter?"," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 16(4), pages 329-345, June.
    55. Thomas Barnebeck Andersen & Finn Tarp, 2003. "Financial liberalization, financial development and economic growth in LDCs," Journal of International Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 15(2), pages 189-209.
    56. Drakos, Konstantinos & Giannakopoulos, Nicholas, 2011. "On the determinants of credit rationing: Firm-level evidence from transition countries," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 30(8), pages 1773-1790.
    57. John Rand & Finn Tarp, 2012. "Firm-Level Corruption in Vietnam," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 60(3), pages 571-595.
    58. Hall, Bronwyn H, 1987. "The Relationship between Firm Size and Firm Growth in the U.S. Manufacturing Sector," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 35(4), pages 583-606, June.
    59. Anwar, Sajid & Sun, Sizhong, 2011. "Financial development, foreign investment and economic growth in Malaysia," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 22(4), pages 335-342, August.
    60. Riding, Allan L. & Swift, Catherine S., 1990. "Women business owners and terms of credit: Some empirical findings of the Canadian experience," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 5(5), pages 327-340, September.
    61. Alvarez, Roberto & Crespi, Gustavo, 2003. "Determinants of Technical Efficiency in Small Firms," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 20(3), pages 233-244, May.
    62. Nguyen, Trung Thanh & Tran, Viet Tuan & Nguyen, Thanh-Tung & Grote, Ulrike, 2019. "Farming efficiency, cropland rental market and welfare effect: Evidence from panel data for rural Central Vietnam," 165th Seminar, April 4-5, 2019, Berlin, Germany 288441, European Association of Agricultural Economists.
    63. Elena Huergo & Jordi Jaumandreu, 2004. "How Does Probability of Innovation Change with Firm Age?," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 22(3_4), pages 193-207, April.
    64. Roberto Rigobon, 2003. "Identification Through Heteroskedasticity," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 85(4), pages 777-792, November.
    65. Elizabeth Asiedu & Isaac Kalonda-Kanyama & Leonce Ndikumana & Akwasi Nti-Addae, 2013. "Access to Credit by Firms in Sub-Saharan Africa: How Relevant Is Gender?," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 103(3), pages 293-297, May.
    66. Manuel Arellano & Stephen Bond, 1991. "Some Tests of Specification for Panel Data: Monte Carlo Evidence and an Application to Employment Equations," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 58(2), pages 277-297.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Nguyen, Duc Loc & Grote, Ulrike & Nguyen, Trung Thanh, 2019. "Migration, crop production and non-farm labor diversification in rural Vietnam," Economic Analysis and Policy, Elsevier, vol. 63(C), pages 175-187.
    2. Tran, Viet T. & Walle, Yabibal M. & Herwartz, Helmut, 2020. "The impact of local financial development on firm growth in Vietnam: Does the level of corruption matter?," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 62(C).
    3. Senou, Melain Modeste & Manda, Julius, 2021. "Access to Finance and Rural Youth Entrepreneurship in Benin: Is There a Gender Gap?," 2021 Conference, August 17-31, 2021, Virtual 315077, International Association of Agricultural Economists.
    4. Rizwan Ullah Khan & Yashar Salamzadeh & Hiroko Kawamorita & Gabor Rethi, 2021. "Entrepreneurial Orientation and Small and Medium-sized Enterprises’ Performance; Does ‘Access to Finance’ Moderate the Relation in Emerging Economies?," Vision, , vol. 25(1), pages 88-102, March.
    5. Thanh-Tung Nguyen & Trung Thanh Nguyen & Ulrike Grote, 2020. "Credit and Ethnic Consumption Inequality in the Central Highlands of Vietnam," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, vol. 148(1), pages 143-172, February.
    6. Melain Modeste Senou & Julius Manda, 2022. "Access to finance and rural youth entrepreneurship in Benin: Is there a gender gap?," African Development Review, African Development Bank, vol. 34(1), pages 29-41, March.
    7. Quang-Thanh Ngo & Quang-Van Tran & Tien-Dung Nguyen & Trung-Thanh Nguyen, 2020. "How Heterogeneous Are the Determinants of Total Factor Productivity in Manufacturing Sectors? Panel-Data Evidence from Vietnam," Economies, MDPI, vol. 8(3), pages 1-25, July.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Tran, Viet T. & Walle, Yabibal M. & Herwartz, Helmut, 2020. "The impact of local financial development on firm growth in Vietnam: Does the level of corruption matter?," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 62(C).
    2. Haschka, Rouven E. & Herwartz, Helmut & Struthmann, Philipp & Tran, Viet Tuan & Walle, Yabibal M., 2022. "The joint effects of financial development and the business environment on firm growth: Evidence from Vietnam," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 50(2), pages 486-506.
    3. Pham, Tho & Talavera, Oleksandr, 2018. "Discrimination, Social Capital, and Financial Constraints: The Case of Viet Nam," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 102(C), pages 228-242.
    4. Aristei, David & Gallo, Manuela, 2016. "Does gender matter for firms' access to credit? Evidence from international data," Finance Research Letters, Elsevier, vol. 18(C), pages 67-75.
    5. Radeef Chundakkadan & Subash Sasidharan, 2022. "Gender gap and access to finance: A cross‐country analysis," Review of Development Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 26(1), pages 180-207, February.
    6. Pham, Tho & Talavera, Oleksandr, 2018. "Discrimination, Social Capital, and Financial Constraints: The Case of Viet Nam," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 102(C), pages 228-242.
    7. Steven Ongena & Alexander Popov, 2016. "Gender Bias and Credit Access," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 48(8), pages 1691-1724, December.
    8. Ferdinando Giglio, 2020. "Access to Credit and Women Entrepreneurs: A Systematic Literature Review," European Research Studies Journal, European Research Studies Journal, vol. 0(4), pages 312-335.
    9. Anastasia Cozarenco & Ariane Szafarz, 2013. "Women’s Access to Credit in France: How Microfinance Institutions Import Disparate Treatment from Banks," Working Papers CEB 13-037, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
    10. Thorsten Beck, 2009. "The Econometrics of Finance and Growth," Palgrave Macmillan Books, in: Terence C. Mills & Kerry Patterson (ed.), Palgrave Handbook of Econometrics, chapter 25, pages 1180-1209, Palgrave Macmillan.
    11. Anastasia Cozarenco & Ariane Szafarz, 2013. "Female Access to Credit in France: How Microfinance Institutions Import Disparate Treatment from Banks," Working Papers halshs-00874448, HAL.
    12. Mohamed Jalloh, 2016. "Stock market capitalisation and economic growth: empirical evidence from Africa," International Journal of Financial Markets and Derivatives, Inderscience Enterprises Ltd, vol. 5(1), pages 76-95.
    13. Vighneswara Swamy & Munusamy Dharani, 2021. "Thresholds in finance–growth nexus: Evidence from G‐7 economies," Australian Economic Papers, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 60(1), pages 1-40, March.
    14. Claudia Piras & Andrea Filippo Presbitero & Roberta Rabellotti, 2013. "Definitions Matter: Measuring Gender Gaps in Firms' Access to Credit," Mo.Fi.R. Working Papers 90, Money and Finance Research group (Mo.Fi.R.) - Univ. Politecnica Marche - Dept. Economic and Social Sciences.
    15. Ahamed, M. Mostak & Mallick, Sushanta K., 2019. "Is financial inclusion good for bank stability? International evidence," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 157(C), pages 403-427.
    16. Shreya Biswas, 2021. "She Innovates- Female owner and firm innovation in India," Papers 2109.09515, arXiv.org.
    17. Wellalage, Nirosha & Locke, Stuart, 2017. "Access to credit by SMEs in South Asia: do women entrepreneurs face discrimination," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 41(C), pages 336-346.
    18. Nirosha Hewa Wellalage & Stuart Locke & Helen Samujh, 2020. "Firm bribery and credit access: evidence from Indian SMEs," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 55(1), pages 283-304, June.
    19. Zhang, Jin & Wang, Lanfang & Wang, Susheng, 2012. "Financial development and economic growth: Recent evidence from China," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 40(3), pages 393-412.
    20. Samargandi, Nahla & Fidrmuc, Jan & Ghosh, Sugata, 2015. "Is the Relationship Between Financial Development and Economic Growth Monotonic? Evidence from a Sample of Middle-Income Countries," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 68(C), pages 66-81.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Gender gap; Local financial development; Firm performance; Heteroscedasticity-based identification;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • J16 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination
    • L25 - Industrial Organization - - Firm Objectives, Organization, and Behavior - - - Firm Performance
    • D53 - Microeconomics - - General Equilibrium and Disequilibrium - - - Financial Markets
    • O18 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Urban, Rural, Regional, and Transportation Analysis; Housing; Infrastructure
    • F63 - International Economics - - Economic Impacts of Globalization - - - Economic Development

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:ecanpo:v:63:y:2019:i:c:p:150-164. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: http://www.journals.elsevier.com/economic-analysis-and-policy .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Catherine Liu (email available below). General contact details of provider: http://www.journals.elsevier.com/economic-analysis-and-policy .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.