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Discrimination, Social Capital, and Financial Constraints: The Case of Viet Nam

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  • Pham, Tho
  • Talavera, Oleksandr

Abstract

This paper examines the relationship among gender, social capital, and access to finance of micro, small, and medium enterprises in the manufacturing sector in Viet Nam. Our dataset is from the 2011, 2013, and 2015 results of the Micro, Small, and Medium Enterprise Survey in Viet Nam. Using the Heckman technique to control for sample selection bias, the estimates do not provide evidence for discrimination against female-owned enterprises in the formal lending market. Specifically, female entrepreneurs have a higher probability of getting a loan and they pay lower interest rates in comparison with male entrepreneurs. No discrimination in formal credit markets may arise from the preference for informal loans over formal loans as entrepreneurs tend to borrow informal loans before applying for formal ones. Further analysis shows that social capital could facilitate loan applications: firms that have a closer relationship with government officials and other business people can get loans of longer duration.

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  • Pham, Tho & Talavera, Oleksandr, 2018. "Discrimination, Social Capital, and Financial Constraints: The Case of Viet Nam," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 102(C), pages 228-242.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:wdevel:v:102:y:2018:i:c:p:228-242
    DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2017.10.005
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    5. Chmelíková, Gabriela & Krauss, Annette & Dvouletý, Ondřej, 2019. "Performance of microfinance institutions in Europe—Does social capital matter?," Socio-Economic Planning Sciences, Elsevier, vol. 68(C).
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    12. Calza, Elisa & Goedhuys, Micheline, 2018. "Domestic quality certification and growth of Vietnamese MSMEs," MERIT Working Papers 2018-026, United Nations University - Maastricht Economic and Social Research Institute on Innovation and Technology (MERIT).
    13. Klingler-Vidra, Robyn & Tran, Ba Linh & Chalmers, Adam William, 2021. "Transnational experience and high-performing entrepreneurs in emerging economies: Evidence from Vietnam," Technology in Society, Elsevier, vol. 66(C).
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    15. Tran, Viet T. & Nguyen, Trung Thanh & Tran, Nguyet T.M., 2019. "Gender difference in access to local finance and firm performance: Evidence from a panel survey in Vietnam," Economic Analysis and Policy, Elsevier, vol. 63(C), pages 150-164.
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    20. Funmi (Olufunmilola) Ojediran & Alistair Anderson, 2020. "Women’s Entrepreneurship in the Global South: Empowering and Emancipating?," Administrative Sciences, MDPI, vol. 10(4), pages 1-22, November.
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    More about this item

    Keywords

    entrepreneurship; financial constraints; gender; discrimination;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • G21 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Banks; Other Depository Institutions; Micro Finance Institutions; Mortgages
    • J16 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination
    • L26 - Industrial Organization - - Firm Objectives, Organization, and Behavior - - - Entrepreneurship

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